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01.12.2014 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2014 Open Access

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1/2014

Estimation of health-related utility (EQ-5D index) in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis to evaluate health gain associated with sublingual grass allergen immunotherapy

Health and Quality of Life Outcomes > Ausgabe 1/2014
Chris D Poole, Christian A Bannister, Jakob Nørgaard Andreasen, Jens Strodl Andersen, Craig J Currie
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1477-7525-12-99) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

All authors declare: financial support for the submitted work by ALK; JNA and JSA are employed by ALK; CB has received a PhD scholarship from the MRC and the EPSRC; CDP has been employed by Pharmatelligence, a research consultancy receiving funding from pharmaceutical companies (including ALK); CJC has received research grants from various health-related organizations including Abbott, Astellas, Diabetes UK, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, the EASFD, Ferring, GSK, Lilly, the Medical Research Council, Medtronic, MSD, the National Health Service, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Shire, and Wyeth and consults for Amylin, Aryx, Astellas, Boehringer Ingelheim, BMS, Diabetes UK, Eisel, Ferring, GSK, Ipsen, Lilly, Medtronic, MSD, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Takeda, and Wyeth; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.

Authors’ contributions

The authors contributed the following: CDP, JNA, JSA and CJC conceived the study. CDP, JNA and JSA contributed to study design. CB and CDP analyzed the data. CB and CDP drafted the paper. CB, CDP, JNA, JSA and CJC interpreted the results. CB, CDP, JNA, JSA and CJC were involved in revising the paper. CJC had overall responsibility for the study and is overall guarantor. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Grass allergen immunotherapy (AIT) reduces symptom severity in seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) but its impact on general health-related utility has not been characterised for the purposes of economic evaluation. The aim of this study was to model the preferred measure of utility, EQ-5D index, from symptom severity and estimate incremental quality adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with SQ-standardised grass immunotherapy tablet (GRAZAX®, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU, ALK, Denmark).


Data were analysed from five consecutive pollen seasons in a randomised placebo controlled trial of GRAZAX®. Binomial and Gaussian mixed effects modelling related weekly EQ-5D index score to daily symptom and medication scores (DSS & DMS respectively). In turn, daily EQ-5D index was estimated from ARC symptoms and medication use.


DSS and DMS were the principal predictors of ‘perfect’ health (EQ-5D = 1.000; binomial) and ‘imperfect’ health (EQ-5D < 1.000; Gaussian). Each unit increase in DSS and DMS reduced the odds of ‘perfect’ health (EQ-5D = 1.000) by 27% and 16% respectively, and reduced ‘imperfect’ health by 0.17 and 0.13, respectively. Gender remained the only other significant main fixed effect (Male odds ratio [OR] = 1.82). Incremental estimated EQ-5D index utility for GRAZAX® was observed from day -30 to day +70 of the pooled pollen season; mean daily utility for GRAZAX® = 0.938 units (95%CI 0.932-0.943) vs. 0.914 (0.907-0.921) for placebo, an incremental difference of 0.0238 (p < 0.001). This translates into an incremental 0.0324 Quality Adjusted Life Years over the five year study period.


ARC symptoms and medication use are the main predictors of EQ-5D index. The incremental QALYs observed for GRAZAX® may not fully describe the health benefits of this treatment, suggesting that economic modelling may be conservative.
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