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01.12.2018 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Medicine 1/2018

Ethnic minority inequalities in access to treatments for schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders: findings from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

BMC Medicine > Ausgabe 1/2018
Jayati Das-Munshi, Dinesh Bhugra, Mike J. Crawford



Ethnic minority service users with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders may experience inequalities in care. There have been no recent studies assessing access to evidence-based treatments for psychosis amongst the main ethnic minority groups in the UK.


Data from nationally representative surveys from England and Wales, for 10,512 people with a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders, were used for analyses. Multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess ethnic minority inequalities in access to pharmacological treatments, psychological interventions, shared decision making and care planning, taking into account a range of potential confounders.


Compared with white service users, black service users were more likely prescribed depot/injectable antipsychotics (odds ratio 1.56 (95% confidence interval 1.33–1.84)). Black service users with treatment resistance were less likely to be prescribed clozapine (odds ratio 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.39–0.79)). All ethnic minority service users, except those of mixed ethnicity, were less likely to be offered cognitive behavioural therapy, compared to white service users. Black service users were less likely to have been offered family therapy, and Asian service users were less likely to have received copies of care plans (odds ratio 0.50 (95% confidence interval 0.33–0.76)), compared to white service users. There were no clinician-reported differences in shared decision making across each of the ethnic minority groups.


Relative to white service users, ethnic minority service users with psychosis were generally less likely to be offered a range of evidence-based treatments for psychosis, which included pharmacological and psychological interventions as well as involvement in care planning.
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