The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11136-016-1454-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), 14 positively worded statements, is a validated instrument to measure mental wellbeing on a population level. Less is known about the population distribution of the shorter seven-item version (SWEMWBS) or its performance as an instrument to measure wellbeing.
Using the Health Survey for England 2010–2013 (n = 27,169 adults aged 16+, nationally representative of the population), age- and sex-specific norms were estimated using means and percentiles. Criterion validity was examined using: (1) Spearman correlations (ρ) for SWEMWBS with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), happiness index, EQ-VAS (2) a multinomial logit model with SWEMWBS (low, medium and high wellbeing) as the outcome and demographic, social and health behaviours as explanatory variables. Relative validity was examined by comparing SWEMWBS with WEMWBS using: (1) Spearman correlations (continuous data), and (2) the weighted kappa statistic (categorical), within population subgroups.
Mean (median) SWEMWBS was 23.7 (23.2) for men and 23.2 (23.2) for women (p = 0.100). Spearman correlations were moderately sized for the happiness index (ρ = 0.53, P < 0.001), GHQ-12 (ρ = −0.52, p < 0.001) and EQ-VAS (ρ = 0.40, p < 0.001). Participants consuming <1 portion of fruit and vegetables a day versus ≥5 (odds ratio = 1.43 95% Confidence Interval = (1.22–1.66)) and current smokers versus non-smokers (1.28 (1.15–1.41)) were more likely to have low vs medium wellbeing. Participants who binge drank versus non-drinkers were less likely to have high versus medium wellbeing (0.81 (0.71–0.92)). Spearman correlations between SWEMWBS and WEMWBS were above 0.95; weighted kappa statistics showed almost perfect agreement (0.79–0.85).
SWEMWBS distinguishes mental wellbeing between subgroups, similarly to WEMWBS, but is less sensitive to gender differences.
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1270 kb)11136_2016_1454_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Tinkler, L. (2015). Measuring National Well-being: Personal Well-being in the UK, 2014–2015. In ONS. (Ed.), Statistical Bulletin.: ONS.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potential: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review Psychology. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141.
McManus, S., Chanfreau, J., & Lloyd, C. (2013). Predictors of wellbeing. London: Natcen.
Stewart-Brown, S., Samaraweera, P. C., Taggart, F., Kandala, N.-B., & Stranges, S. (2015). Socioeconomic gradients and mental health: Implications for public health. The British Journal of Psychiatry, doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.114.147280.
Stewart-Brown, S., Tennant, A., Tennant, R., Platt, S., Parkinson, J., & Weich, S. (2009). Internal construct validity of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): A Rasch analysis using data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 7(1), 1–8. doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-7-15. CrossRef
WEMWBS Registry Database (2016). Accessed 01 April 2016.
Castellví, P., Forero, C. G., Codony, M., Vilagut, G., Brugulat, P., Medina, A., et al. (2013). The Spanish version of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) is valid for use in the general population. Quality of Life Research, 23(3), 857–868. doi: 10.1007/s11136-013-0513-7. CrossRefPubMed
Gremigni, P., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2011). Measuring mental well-being: Italian validation of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). Giornale italiano di psicologia, 38(2), 485–508.
Trousselard, M., Steiler, D., Dutheil, F., Claverie, D., Canini, F., Fenouillet, F., et al. (2016). Validation of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) in French psychiatric and general populations. Psychiatry Research, 245, 282–290. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.08.050. CrossRefPubMed
Taggart, F., Stewart-Brown, S., & Parkinson, J. (2016). Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). User guide-Version 2. Edinburgh.: NHS Health Scotland.
Natcen Social Research, and University College Medical School. (2015). Health Survey for England, 2010 [computer file] (3rd ed.). Colchester: UK Data Archive.
NatCen Social Research, University College London, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2015). Health Survey for England, 2013 [computer file]. Colchester: UK Data Archive.
NatCen Social Research, University College London, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2013). Health Survey for England, 2011 [computer file]. Colchester: UK Data Archive.
NatCen Social Research, University College London, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health. (2014). Health Survey for England, 2012 [computer file]. Colchester: UK Data Archive.
Warwick Medical School (2016). SWEMWBS. http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/med/research/platform/wemwbs/development/swemwbs/. Accessed 06 April 2016.
Sabia, S., van Hees, V. T., Shipley, M. J., Trenell, M. I., Hagger-Johnson, G., Elbaz, A., et al. (2014). Association between questionnaire- and accelerometer-assessed physical activity: The role of sociodemographic factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 179(6), 781–790. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt330. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Mindell, J. S., Knott, C. S., Ng Fat, L. S., Roth, M. A., Manor, O., Soskolne, V., et al. (2014). Explanatory factors for health inequalities across different ethnic and gender groups: Data from a national survey in England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, doi: 10.1136/jech-2014-203927. PubMedCentral
- Evaluating and establishing national norms for mental wellbeing using the short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS): findings from the Health Survey for England
Linda Ng Fat
- Springer International Publishing