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17.10.2015 | Original Article | Ausgabe 11/2016

European Spine Journal 11/2016

Evaluation of forward head posture in sitting and standing positions

European Spine Journal > Ausgabe 11/2016
B. Shaghayegh fard, Amir Ahmadi, N. Maroufi, J. Sarrafzadeh



Head postural assessment is part of the orthopaedic physical examination process and could help to identify faulty head postures. One of the most common faulty postures of the craniocervical region is the forward head posture (FHP). There are several methods to evaluate FHP but it is not clear which method is more precise. The aim of this study was to compare the craniovertebral angle (CVA) between a FHP and a healthy group in sitting and standing positions.


Twenty-five subjects with FHP (22.9 ± 2 years) and 25 normal subjects (21.9 ± 5 years) participated in this case–control study. Photography of the sagittal view was done in standing and relaxed sitting postures to determine the amount of the FHP.


The results of independent t test showed a significant difference in the CVA between the FHP and healthy groups (P < 0.001). The result of paired t test showed a significant difference between CVA in standing and sitting postures for both groups (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the BMI had a significant negative correlation with CVA in standing position (P < 0.01).


Our results indicated that the CVA was increased in the sitting posture compared to the standing posture and introduced the standing posture as a more sensitive posture to evaluate the FHP.

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