01.12.2015 | Original Research | Ausgabe 6/2015
Evaluation of near-infrared spectroscopy under apnea-dependent hypoxia in humans
Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
- Lars Eichhorn, Felix Erdfelder, Florian Kessler, Jonas Doerner, Marcus O. Thudium, Rainer Meyer, Richard K. Ellerkmann
In this study we investigated the responsiveness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) recordings measuring regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (rSO2) during hypoxia in apneic divers. The goal was to mimic dynamic hypoxia as present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, laryngospasm, airway obstruction, or the “cannot ventilate cannot intubate” situation. Ten experienced apneic divers performed maximal breath hold maneuvers under dry conditions. SpO2 was measured by Masimo™ pulse oximetry on the forefinger of the left hand. NIRS was measured by NONIN Medical’s EQUANOX™ on the forehead or above the musculus quadriceps femoris. Following apnea median cerebral rSO2 and SpO2 values decreased significantly from 71 to 54 and from 100 to 65 %, respectively. As soon as cerebral rSO2 and SpO2 values decreased monotonically the correlation between normalized cerebral rSO2 and SpO2 values was highly significant (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.893). Prior to correlation analyses, the values were normalized by dividing them by the individual means of stable pre-apneic measurements. Cerebral rSO2 measured re-saturation after termination of apnea significantly earlier (10 s, SD = 3.6 s) compared to SpO2 monitoring (21 s, SD = 4.4 s) [t(9) = 7.703, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.868]. Our data demonstrate that NIRS monitoring reliably measures dynamic changes in cerebral tissue oxygen saturation, and identifies successful re-saturation faster than SpO2. Measuring cerebral rSO2 may prove beneficial in case of respiratory emergencies and during pulseless situations where SpO2 monitoring is impossible.