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14.11.2018 | Ausgabe 1/2019

Pituitary 1/2019

Evaluation of the natural course of thyroid nodules in patients with acromegaly

Zeitschrift:
Pituitary > Ausgabe 1/2019
Autoren:
Sema Ciftci Dogansen, Artur Salmaslioglu, Gulsah Yenidunya Yalin, Seher Tanrikulu, Sema Yarman

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the nodular thyroid disease (NTD) and the natural course of thyroid nodules in patients with acromegaly.

Methods

138 patients with acromegaly (73 F/65 M), whose initial thyroid ultrasonography performed in our university hospital, were included in this study. The frequencies of NTD, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and associated factors on nodule formation were investigated at initial assessment. Patients who had NTD continued to follow-up (n = 56) were re-evaluated with a ultrasonography performed after a mean 7-years follow-up period. The nodule size changes were compared with the initial data and the factors affecting nodule growth were investigated.

Results

The frequency of NTD was found 69%. Patients with NTD were older (p = 0.05), with higher baseline IGF-1%ULN (upper limit of normal) (p = 0.01). In patients with NTD, the majority had similar nodule size (45%), decreased nodule size in 30% and nodule growth in 25%. In patients with active acromegaly at last visit, nodule growth was more significant (p < 0.001). For one unit change in the IGF-1 levels, nodule growth increased by 1.01 folds and presence of active acromegaly disease was related with ninefolds increase in nodule growth. The frequency of PTC was 14% in patients with nodule growth and PTC was diagnosed 11% of all acromegalic patients.

Conclusion

Both NTD and nodule growth is more frequent in active acromegalic patients. Thyroid nodules may show dynamic changes according to the disease activity and nodule growth should be closely monitored due to the risk of malignancy in patients with active acromegaly disease.

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