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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Oral Health 1/2015

Evaluation of the smear layer removal and erosive capacity of EDTA, boric acid, citric acid and desy clean solutions: an in vitro study

BMC Oral Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Tugba Turk, Mehmet Emin Kaval, Bilge Hakan Şen
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests

Authors’ contributions

BHS conceived the study together with TT and MEK. TT and MEK carried out all experiments. TT provided the SEM images. BHS performed the statistical analysis. TT and MEK drafted the paper and BHS reviewed the draft critically and contributed substantially to all redrafts. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



The purpose of this study was to investigate the smear layer removal and erosive capacity of various irrigation solutions with sequential use of NaOCl on instrumented root canal walls.


The root canals of single-rooted teeth were instrumented with ProTaper rotary instrument. Then, the teeth were randomly divided into five experimental groups. The root canals were irrigated with one of the following solutions (5 mL/1 min): 5 % EDTA, 5 % boric acid (BA), a mixture of BA and CA, 2.5 % citric acid (CA) and 5 % Desy Clean. After irrigating with 2.5 % NaOCl and distilled water, the roots were split into two halves and each half was prepared for SEM examination. Representative photographs were taken from each third at x500 and x1000 magnifications. Double blind scoring was performed by two calibrated observers for smear layer and erosion. The scores were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn’s post hoc and Spearman’s correlation tests (p = 0.05).


There were statistically significant differences among the solutions by means of smear layer and erosion (p < 0.05). While 2.5 % CA solution was the most effective solution in removal of smear layer, it was also the most erosive solution (p < 0.05). 5 % Desy Clean removed smear layer effectively and caused less erosion. There was a negative, but statistically significant correlation between presence of smear layer and erosion (r = −0.684; p < 0.0001).


Desy Clean can be a promising agent as an irrigation solution with optimal smear layer removal capacity and less erosive effects.
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