24.05.2020 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 9/2020
Evaluation of the use of anti-platelet therapy throughout the peri-operative period in patients with femoral neck fracture surgery. A retrospective cohort study
- Ahmed Kamel Abdulhamid
Fracture neck of femur (hip fracture) is a very common problem among old age group. Such elderly patients usually have some comorbidities for which they may use anti-platelet therapy (such as clopidogrel, aspirin, or others) for long duration (chronic use). These anti-platelet medications might make the blood thin and increase bleeding tendency. So, if these elderly people present with fracture neck of femur requiring surgical intervention, they might be at increased risk of bleeding and other complications if the use of these anti-platelet agents was continued throughout the peri-operative period.
This current study aims to find out whether it is safe or not to continue the use of anti-platelet drugs during the peri-operative period in patients with hip fracture surgery. If it is safe and there are no complications, then there is no harm to continue the use of these drugs peri-operatively without any surgical delay. But if it is unsafe and there is increased risk of bleeding or blood transfusion or other complications, then such medications must be stopped peri-operatively. Thus, the medical practice and care will be improved to achieve patient safety.
It was a retrospective study which reviewed files and notes of patients who had hip fracture surgery. These patients were divided into 2 groups. First group was on long-term anti-platelet treatment (APTG), and the use of these medicines continued during the peri-operative phase. The second group was not on anti-platelet treatment at all (NAPTG). Then, a comparison was done between both groups in terms of the following parameters during the peri-operative (pre- and post-operative) period: (i) intra-operative blood loss, (ii) operative time in minutes (length of surgery), (iii) pre-operative haemoglobin level, (iv) the need for blood transfusion, (v) haematoma formation, (vi) re-operation for any reason, (vii) post-operative wound infection, and (viii) duration in days to achieve complete wound healing post-operatively. So these measures are good parameters to assess bleeding tendency and bleeding risk. Data was collected, and statistical analysis was done using Pearson’s chi-squared test and independent sample t test as appropriate.
325 participants were enrolled in the study. There were 163 patients in the APTG (Anti-Platelet Treatment Group) and 162 patients in the NAPTG (Non-Anti-Platelet Treatment Group). It has been found that there was no statistically significant difference between the APTG and NAPTG in terms of these peri-operative parameters: (i) intra-operative blood loss, (ii) operative time in minutes (length of surgery), (iii) pre-operative haemoglobin level, (iv) the need for blood transfusion, (v) haematoma formation, (vi) re-operation for any reason, (vii) post-operative wound infection, and (viii) duration in days to achieve complete wound healing post-operatively (P > 0.650).
It is safe to continue the use of anti-platelet therapy throughout the peri-operative phase in patients with hip fracture surgery. The continuation of such therapy is not associated with increased risk of bleeding or blood transfusion or other complications in patients who had surgical treatment for femoral neck fracture.