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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

Ever dispense of prescribed allergy medication in children growing up close to traffic: a registry-based birth cohort

Zeitschrift:
BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Autoren:
Anna Lindgren, Emilie Stroh, Kristina Jakobsson
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12889-015-2356-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AL drafted the manuscript, conducted the statistical analyses, and did the main design of the study and interpretation of results. ES conducted exposure modeling, and participated in the design of the study and interpretation of results. KJ participated in the design of the study and in interpretation of results. All authors made revisions on drafts, and read and approved of the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Epidemiologic studies have shown conflicting results regarding the role of traffic pollution in the development of allergic disease. This study investigated the relationship between living close to traffic and ever dispense of prescribed oral antihistamines or nasal anti-allergic medication, among young children. The underlying aim was to investigate if children growing up close to traffic pollution are at higher risk of developing allergy in early childhood.

Methods

We investigated a birth cohort in southern Sweden, consisting of N = 26 128 children (0–6 years) with health outcome and exposure data. Of these children, N = 7898, had additional covariate information. Traffic intensity and yearly averages of dispersion-modeled concentrations of NOX (100 × 100 m grid) at residential addresses, were linked with registry data on dispensed allergy medication (the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register). Individual level covariate information was obtained from questionnaires distributed to parents at Child Health Care-center visits, eight months after birth. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses.

Results

Living in close proximity to a road with equal to or greater than 8640 cars/day (compared to 0–8639 cars/day), was not associated with higher incidence of ever dispensed oral antihistamine or nasal anti-allergic medication, with or without adjustment for confounders (sex, breastfeeding, parental allergy, parental origin, season, and year of birth). Similar results were found in relation to NOX.

Conclusions

Traffic-related exposure was not associated with higher incidence of ever dispensed medication against allergy, in children 0–6 years in southern Sweden. These results indicates that traffic-related exposure may not be a risk factor for early onset allergy in children in southern Sweden. However, children with dispense of prescribed allergy medication may be a selected subgroup, and the results for this group may not be generalizable to all children with allergy.
Zusatzmaterial
Additional file 1: Table S1. Sensitivity analysis 1. Unadjusted HR (95 % CI) for allergy medication, in relation to traffic-related exposure, n = 26 128. Table S2. Sensitivity analysis 2. Malmo vs outside. Adjusted HR (95 % CI) for allergy medication, children in Malmö vs. outside Malmö. Table S3. Sensitivity analysis of children with high socio-economic statusa, n = 3464. Adjustedb HR (95 % CI) for allergy medication, in relation to traffic-related exposure. Table S4. Sensitivity analysis 4. Robustness of estimates in fully adjusted model, and model fit. Fully adjusted model including all possibly relevant covariates. HR (95 % CI) for allergy medication, in relation to traffic-related exposure, n = 5736. (DOCX 39.9 kb)
12889_2015_2356_MOESM1_ESM.docx
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