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01.12.2014 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2014 Open Access

Respiratory Research 1/2014

Exhaled breath condensate in intubated neonates- a window into the lung’s glutathione status

Zeitschrift:
Respiratory Research > Ausgabe 1/2014
Autoren:
Maria I Rosso, Susan Roark, Esther Taylor, XiaoDu Ping, Janine M Ward, Katherine Roche, Courtney McCracken, Lou Ann S Brown, Theresa W Gauthier
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1465-9921-15-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors have no financial ties or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Authors’ contributions

Study idea and design: MR, SR, ET, LAB, TG; Patient enrollment and sample collection: MR, SR, ET, KR, TG; Sample processing and analyses: MR, XP, JW, KR; Statistical analyses and interpretation of data: MR, CM, LAB, TG. Manuscript drafting and revision: MR, CM, LAB, TG. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Analysis of exhaled breath condensates (EBC) is a non-invasive technique to evaluate biomarkers such as antioxidants in the pediatric population, but limited data exists of its use in intubated patients, particularly newborns. Currently, tracheal aspirate (TA) serves as the gold standard collection modality in critically ill newborns, but this method remains invasive. We tested the hypothesis that glutathione status would positively correlate between EBC and TA collections in intubated newborns in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU). We also hypothesized that these measurements would be associated with alveolar macrophage (AM) glutathione status in the newborn lung.

Methods

Reduced glutathione (rGSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), and total GSH (rGSH + (2 X GSSG)) were measured in sequential EBC and TA samples from 26 intubated newborns via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Additionally, AM glutathione was evaluated via immunofluorescence. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and associated 95% confidence intervals were used to quantify the associations between raw and urea-corrected concentrations in EBC and TA samples and AM staining. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05 using two-tailed tests. The sample size was projected to allow for a correlation coefficient of 0.5, with 0.8 power and alpha of 0.05.

Results

EBC was obtainable from intubated newborns without adverse clinical events. EBC samples demonstrated moderate to strong positive correlations with TA samples in terms of rGSH, GSSG and total GSH. Positive correlations between the two sampling sites were observed in both raw and urea-corrected concentrations of rGSH, GSSG and total GSH. AM glutathione staining moderately correlated with GSSG and total GSH status in both the TA and EBC.

Conclusions

GSH status in EBC samples of intubated newborns significantly correlated with the GSH status of the TA sample and was reflective of cellular GSH status in this cohort of neonatal patients. Non-invasive EBC sampling of intubated newborns holds promise for monitoring antioxidant status such as GSH in the premature lung. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential relationships between EBC biomarkers in the intubated premature newborn and respiratory morbidities.
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