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01.12.2012 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

BMC Health Services Research 1/2012

Exposure to second-hand smoke and direct healthcare costs in children – results from two German birth cohorts, GINIplus and LISAplus

BMC Health Services Research > Ausgabe 1/2012
Ariane Batscheider, Sylwia Zakrzewska, Joachim Heinrich, Christina M Teuner, Petra Menn, Carl Peter Bauer, Ute Hoffmann, Sibylle Koletzko, Irina Lehmann, Olf Herbarth, Andrea von Berg, Dietrich Berdel, Ursula Krämer, Beate Schaaf, H-Erich Wichmann, Reiner Leidl, the GINIplus and LISAplus study groups
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1472-6963-12-344) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

All authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

AB, SZ, CMT, JH and RL developed the design and analysis plan of this study. JH initiated this study and suggested the assessment of exposure to tobacco smoking. AB and SZ developed the first draft of the manuscript and performed statistical analyses. CMT ans PM revised the manuscript according to the reviewers’ suggestions including further analyses. JH, CPB, UH, SK, IL, OH, AvB, DB, UK, BS and HEW provided data from the birth cohorts. All authors (AB, SZ, JH, CMT, PM, CPB, UH, SK, IL, OH, AvB, DB, UK, BS, HEW, RL) contributed to interpretation of findings, critically reviewed each draft of the manuscript, contributed to writing and approved the final manuscript.



Although the negative health consequences of the exposure to second hand tobacco smoke during childhood are already known, evidence on the economic consequences is still rare. The aim of this study was to estimate excess healthcare costs of exposure to tobacco smoke in German children.


The study is based on data from two birth cohort studies of 3,518 children aged 9-11 years with information on healthcare utilisation and tobacco smoke exposure: the GINIplus study (German Infant Study On The Influence Of Nutrition Intervention Plus Environmental And Genetic Influences On Allergy Development) and the LISAplus study (Influence of Life-Style Factors On The Development Of The Immune System And Allergies In East And West Germany Plus The Influence Of Traffic Emissions And Genetics). Direct medical costs were estimated using a bottom-up approach (base year 2007). We investigated the impact of tobacco smoke exposure in different environments on the main components of direct healthcare costs using descriptive analysis and a multivariate two-step regression analysis.


Descriptive analysis showed that average annual medical costs (physician visits, physical therapy and hospital treatment) were considerably higher for children exposed to second-hand tobacco smoke at home (indoors or on patio/balcony) compared with those who were not exposed. Regression analysis confirmed these descriptive trends: the odds of positive costs and the amount of total costs are significantly elevated for children exposed to tobacco smoke at home after adjusting for confounding variables. Combining the two steps of the regression model shows smoking attributable total costs per child exposed at home of €87 [10–165] (patio/balcony) and €144 [6–305] (indoors) compared to those with no exposure. Children not exposed at home but in other places showed only a small, but not significant, difference in total costs compared to those with no exposure.


This study shows adverse economic consequences of second-hand smoke in children depending on proximity of exposure. Tobacco smoke exposure seems to affect healthcare utilisation in children who are not only exposed to smoke indoors but also if parents reported exclusively smoking on patio or balcony. Preventing children from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke might thus be desirable not only from a health but also from an economic perspective.
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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