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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Urology 1/2015

Expression of brain derived-neurotrophic factor and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in the urothelium: relation with voiding function

BMC Urology > Ausgabe 1/2015
Seung Mo Yuk, Ju Hyun Shin, Ki Hak Song, Yong Gil Na, Jae Sung Lim, Chong Koo Sul
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

SMY conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, carried out the cystometry, performed the statistical analysis, and helped draft and critically revise the manuscript. JHS conducted the immunoassays and participated in the design of the study. KHS, YGN, and JSL participated in the design of the study, performed the statistical analysis, and helped draft and critically revise the manuscript. CKS conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination, and helped draft and revise the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



We designed this experiment to elucidate the relationship between the expression of brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), and the development of overactive bladder (OAB). In our previous study, the urothelium was observed to be more than a simple mechanosensory receptor and was found to be a potential therapeutic target for OAB. Moreover, neuregulin-1 and BDNF were found to be potential new biomarkers of OAB. Here, we investigated the relationship between changes in the voiding pattern and the expression of BDNF and G-CSF in the urothelium and evaluated the effects of 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT) on rats with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO).


A total of 100 Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 20 control rats; 40 BOO rats; and 40 BOO rats administered 5-HMT (0.1 mg/kg). After BOO was induced for 4 weeks, the rats were assessed by cystometrography. The changes in BDNF and G-CSF expression were examined in both separated urothelial tissues and in cultured urothelial cells by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).


BOO rats showed increased non-voiding activity [NVA; (number/10 voidings)] and bladder weight and decreased micturition volume (MV), micturition interval (MI), and micturition time (MT) relative to the controls. Moreover, the 5-HMT administration rats showed decreased NVA and bladder weight and increased MV and MI in comparison to the BOO rats. BDNF and G-CSF expression was increased in BOO rats and decreased following 5-HMT administration. In this model, voiding dysfunction developed as a result of BOO. As a therapeutic agent for OAB, the administration of 5-HMT improved the voiding dysfunction.


BDNF and G-CSF might modulate voiding patterns through micturition pathways and might be involved only in the urothelium. Moreover, the expression of both genes in the urothelium might be related to voiding dysfunction in OAB patients. Thus, the urothelium has an important role in the manifestation of voiding symptoms.
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