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16.03.2019 | Original Article

Feasibility and Normal Ranges of Arterial Intima-Media Thickness and Stiffness in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

Zeitschrift:
Pediatric Cardiology
Autoren:
Bing Zhao, Fay H. Johnston, Marita Dalton, Kazuaki Negishi
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00246-019-02088-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Abstract

Introduction

In adults, noninvasive assessments of vascular function have been established. However, little is known about the applicability and reference values of these techniques among children < 6 years old and none ≤ 2. We aimed to determine the feasibility of conducting noninvasive vascular assessments in 2-year-old children and the normal range of results in this age group.

Methods

Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and abdominal aorta IMT (aaIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), arterial diameter change, stiffness index (β), and distensibility were assessed in 2-year-old children. IMT was assessed using an automatic contour detection.

Results

The proportion of successful measurements was 72% (42/58) with cIMT 64%, aaIMT 67%, and PWV 43%. Average far wall cIMT was 0.51 mm and 0.40 for aaIMT. Mean PWV was 4.15 m/s, with relatively wider range in stiffness index and distensibility. Common carotid arteries had a higher mean distensibility of 4.58%/10 mmHg compared with 2.98%/10 mmHg for the abdominal aorta. The number of data points automatically detected at far wall cIMT was higher than that in aaIMT (left cIMT: 244 ± 13 and right: 240 ± 23 vs. abdominal 185 ± 63, p < 0.001). Better and more consistent quality was achieved for cIMT than aaIMT measurements. PWV measurement was only feasible in cooperative children with efficient distractions.

Conclusions

Noninvasive methods for early detection of cardiovascular risks were feasible in at least two-thirds of 2-year-old children. Given the greater feasibility and image quality, cIMT is a preferable option for assessing vascular health in young children.

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 32 KB)
246_2019_2088_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Literatur
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