Skip to main content
main-content

18.08.2017 | Review Article | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Forensic Toxicology 1/2018

Fentanyls continue to replace heroin in the drug arena: the cases of ocfentanil and carfentanil

Zeitschrift:
Forensic Toxicology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Nektaria Misailidi, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Artemisia Dona, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis

Abstract

Purpose

Ocfentanil and carfentanil are two potent synthetic opioids that are analogues of fentanyl and are actively involved in the recent fentanyl crisis. The aim of this review is to provide all the available information on these two fentanyl analogues.

Methods

All reviewed information was gathered through a detailed search of PubMed and the World Wide Web using relevant keywords.

Results

Like most of the members of the family of fentanyls, they are either sold as heroin to unsuspecting users or used extensively to lace heroin street samples. Despite the fact that ocfentanil was studied clinically in the early 1990s, it did not manage to find its place in clinical practice. On the other hand, carfentanil is mainly used today as an anesthetic agent in large animals. Ocfentanil and carfentanil are used and abused extensively, mainly in Europe and in the United States. As a result, they are the cause of some verified intoxication cases and deaths worldwide. This review provides information concerning chemistry, synthesis, prevalence, pharmacology, and toxicology, as well as the current legal status of these two fentanyl analogues. Analytical methods developed for the determination of ocfentanil and carfentanil in biological specimens and seized materials, as well as related intoxication and lethal cases are also presented.

Conclusions

Ocfentanil and carfentanil are undeniably very dangerous opioid drugs and a very serious matter of concern for public safety. The authorities should take the appropriate actions to avoid the expansion of this threat by taking proper and prompt measures.

Unsere Produktempfehlungen

e.Med Interdisziplinär

Kombi-Abonnement

Mit e.Med Interdisziplinär erhalten Sie Zugang zu allen CME-Fortbildungen und Fachzeitschriften auf SpringerMedizin.de. Zusätzlich können Sie eine Zeitschrift Ihrer Wahl in gedruckter Form beziehen – ohne Aufpreis.

Bis zum 22.10. bestellen und 100 € sparen!

Literatur
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2018

Forensic Toxicology 1/2018Zur Ausgabe

Neu im Fachgebiet Rechtsmedizin

29.08.2018 | Schwerpunkt: Ektopes Gewebe | Ausgabe 5/2018

Ektopien des Thymus und ektope Thymustumoren

28.08.2018 | Schwerpunkt: Ektopes Gewebe | Ausgabe 5/2018

Ektopes Gewebe des weiblichen Genitaltraktes

22.08.2018 | Schwerpunkt: Ektopes Gewebe | Ausgabe 5/2018 Open Access

Ektopien der Niere, Harnwege und männlichen Geschlechtsorgane

22.08.2018 | Schwerpunkt: Ektopes Gewebe | Ausgabe 5/2018

Histopathologie und Klinik der Extrauteringravidität

 

 

 
 

Bildnachweise