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24.01.2018 | Brief Communication | Ausgabe 2/2018

German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research 2/2018

Football-related patriotism in Germany and the 2016 UEFA EURO

German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research > Ausgabe 2/2018
Michael Mutz
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s12662-018-0490-7) contains supplementary material with additional descriptive tables and figures, which is available to authorized users.


This paper coins the term ‘football patriotism’ to describe the open, expressive handling of national symbols (e. g. flags, anthems, national colors) in the context of international football events. Based on a representative online survey of the adult German population (N = 1092), which was carried out in the course of the 2016 UEFA EURO, this paper presents, for the first time, empirical findings on three essential questions: (1) Which proportion of the German population was involved in which forms of football-related patriotic behavior? (2) To what extent does this proportion vary between different social demographic groups? (3) Which political and ideological attitudes are associated with football patriotism? The results illustrate that roughly 15% of German adults were involved in three or more different patriotic actions during the EURO. This proportion was lower among older, East German and immigrant respondents and higher in families with children. Football patriots positioned themselves less often as politically ‘left’ and endorsed patriotic and nationalistic statements more strongly.

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Table A1: Data collection periods during the 2016 UEFA EURO. Table A2: Sample demographics compared to official Mikrozensus data. Table A3: Overview of items on the patriotism and nationalism scales. Figure A1: Number of different football-related patriotic actions performed during the EURO
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