The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1465-9921-15-79) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
RM performed the major part of the analysis, contributed to the interpretation of the results and drafted the manuscript. LE, AB and MA contributed to the analysis of the study, and supported the development of the manuscript. TP participated in the interpretation of the results, and contributed to the development of the manuscript. BL together with JL conceived the West Sweden Asthma Study, and have both directed its implementation. JL conceived the outline of the current analysis, and supervised its completion. All authors agreed with the final draft of the manuscript.
Asthma is a complex disease presenting with variable symptoms which are sometimes hard to control. The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence of asthma symptoms, use of asthma medications and allergic sensitization in subjects with asthma. We also related those indices to the level of asthma control, lung function and in particular, cough.
An extensive questionnaire was sent to randomly selected adults from the West Sweden region. Clinical examinations and interview were performed in a subset. Of the participants, 744 were defined as having an ongoing asthma - reported ever having asthma or physician diagnosed asthma and one of the following – use of asthma medications, recurrent wheeze or attacks of shortness of breath with or without wheeze in the last 12 months. A respiratory disease-free control group of 847 subjects was also described.
According to GINA guidelines, 40.6% of the asthmatics had partly controlled and 17.8% had uncontrolled asthma. Asthmatic subjects reported significantly more symptoms in the last 12 months than the control group – wheezing (79.4 vs 9.2%), shortness of breath (36.1 vs 2.5%), wheezing with shortness of breath (58.7 vs 1.3%). Important complaints were morning cough (42.5 vs 15.5%), cough with sputum production (36.1 vs 6.8%) and longstanding cough (32.5 vs 11.1%), which bothered two thirds of the uncontrolled and one third of partly controlled subjects. Asthma medications were used by 87.5% of the asthmatics, although around 30% of them who had insufficiently controlled disease used only short-acting beta-agonists. Asthmatics also had lower lung function, reacted to lower doses of methacholine that the controls and 13.6% of them had a FEV1/FVC ratio below 0.7. Allergic rhinitis was reported by 73.8% of the asthmatics and they were more frequently sensitized to several common allergens.
Approximately 60% of asthmatics from this population-based study had insufficiently controlled asthma and persistent complaints, despite a high use of asthma medications. These self-reported symptoms were supported by clinical examination data. Increased cough frequency is an indicator of a more severe and difficult to control disease and should be considered when asthma is characterized.
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- Frequent cough in unsatisfactory controlled asthma – results from the population-based West Sweden Asthma Study
Todor A Popov
- BioMed Central
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