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01.12.2018 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Nephrology 1/2018

Full normalization of severe hypertension after parathryoidectomy – a case report and systematic review

Zeitschrift:
BMC Nephrology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Andreea Corina Sofronie, Isabelle Kooij, Claude Bursot, Giulia Santagati, Jean-Philippe Coindre, Giorgina Barbara Piccoli

Abstract

Background

Although the relationship between hyperparathyroidism and hypertension has been described for decades, the role of hyperparathyroidism in hypertension in dialysis is still unclear. Following the case of a severely hypertensive dialysis patient, in which parathyroidectomy (PTX) corrected the metabolic imbalance and normalized blood pressure (BP), we tried to contextualize our observation with a systematic review of the recent literature on the effect of PTX on BP.

Case presentation

A dialysis patient, aged 19 years at the time of this report, with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from childhood; he was an early-preterm baby with very low birth weight (910 g), and is affected by a so-far unidentified familial nephropathy. He started dialysis in emergency at the age of 17. Except for low-dose Bisoprolol, he refused all chronic medication; hypertension (165–200/90–130 mmHg) did not respond to attainment of dry weight (Kt/V > 1.7; BNP 70–200 pg/ml pre-dialysis). He underwent subtotal PTX 1 year after dialysis start; after PTX, his blood pressure stabilized in the 100–140/50–80 range, and is normal without treatment 5 months later.

Conclusion

Our patient has some peculiar features: he is young, has a non-immunologic disease, poor compliance to drug therapy, excellent dialysis efficiency. His lack of compliance allows observing the effect of PTX on BP without pharmacologic interference.
The prompt, complete and long-lasting BP normalization led us to systematic review the current literature (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration 2000–2016) retrieving 8 case series (194 cases), and one case report (3 patients).
The meta-analysis showed a significant, albeit moderate, improvement in BP after PTX (difference: systolic BP -8.49 (CI 2.21–14.58) mmHg; diastolic BP -4.14 (CI 1.45–6.84) mmHg); analysis is not fully conclusive due to lack of information on anti-hypertensive agents. The 3 cases reported displayed a sharp reduction in BP after PTX.
In summary, PTX may have a positive influence on BP control, and may result in complete correction or even hypotension in some patients. The potential clinical relevance of this relationship warrants prospective large-scale studies.
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