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01.12.2012 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Journal of Medical Case Reports 1/2012

Fulminant invasive aspergillosis of the mediastinum in an immunocompetent host: a case report

Journal of Medical Case Reports > Ausgabe 1/2012
Muhammad Tariq Shakoor, Samia Ayub, Zunaira Ayub, Faisal Mahmood
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1752-1947-6-311) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

SA, MTS, ZA and FM supervised the patient directly. MTS, SA and ZA were the major contributors in writing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



Invasive aspergillosis is a serious complication in immunocompromised patients. It is an opportunistic disease, which predominantly occurs in the lungs, although dissemination to virtually any organ is possible. Invasive aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient with extension to the mediastinum has rarely been reported. Here, we present the case of a patient with no apparent immunodeficiency state, who presented with Aspergillus endocarditis and fulminant invasive aspergillosis with extensive involvement of the mediastinal structures, which ultimately was responsible for her death. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature on fulminant invasive mediastinal aspergillosis with extension to the pulmonary vasculature and concomitant Aspergillus endocarditis in an apparently immunocompetent patient without pre-existing lung disease.

Case presentation

Our patient was a previously healthy 47-year-old Asian woman, who presented to our emergency room with severe progressive shortness of breath of one month’s duration, associated with orthopnea and unstable vital signs.


Invasive aspergillosis has been described in the presence of pulmonary disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and one case has been reported in a patient without preexistent disease, but none of these have been fatal. Our case is therefore the first reported case of its kind. Our case shows that fulminant aspergillosis can occur in an immunocompetent host and can be fatal. We conclude that invasive aspergillosis should not be excluded from the differential diagnosis on the basis of immunocompetency.

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