Jacklyn M. Nemunaitis, Ursa Brown-Glabeman and Rama R. Gullapalli contributed equally to this work.
Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy of the biliary tract with a poor prognosis, frequently presenting at an advanced stage. While rare in the United States overall, gallbladder cancer has an elevated incidence in geographically distinct locations of the globe including Chile, North India, Korea, Japan and the state of New Mexico in the United States. People with Native American ancestry have a much elevated incidence of gallbladder cancer compared to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations of New Mexico. Gallbladder cancer is also one of the few bi-gendered cancers with an elevated female incidence compared to men. Similar to other gastrointestinal cancers, gallbladder cancer etiology is likely multi-factorial involving a combination of genomic, immunological, and environmental factors. Understanding the interplay of these unique epidemiological factors is crucial in improving the prevention, early detection, and treatment of this lethal disease. Previous studies have failed to identify a distinct genomic mutational profile in gallbladder cancers, however, work to identify promising clinically actionable targets is this form of cancer is ongoing. Examples include, interest in the HER2/Neu signaling pathway and the recognition that chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in gallbladder cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of gallbladder cancer epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, and treatment with a specific focus on the rural and Native American populations of New Mexico. We conclude this review by discussing future research directions with the goal of improving clinical outcomes for patients of this lethal malignancy.
Shaffer EA. Gallbladder cancer: the basics. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2008;4(10):737–41.
Lorenzo Bermejo J, Boekstagers F, Gonzalez Silos R, Marcelain K, Baez Benavidez P, Barahona Ponce C, et al. Subtypes of native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile. PLoS Genet. 2017;13(5):e1006756. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Eslick GD. Epidemiology of gallbladder cancer. Gastroenterol Clin N Am. 2010;39(2):307–30. ix CrossRef
Shukla VK, Chauhan VS, Mishra RN, Basu S. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and risk of gallbladder cancer. Singap Med J. 2008;49(11):912–5.
Jaruvongvanich V, Yang JD, Peeraphatdit T, Roberts LR. The incidence rates and survival of gallbladder cancer in the USA. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2017. PMID: 28683010. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000402.
Espinoza JA, Bizama C, Garcia P, Ferreccio P, Javle M, Miguel JF, et al. The inflammatory inception of gallbladder cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1865(2):245–54. PubMed
Shi JS, Zhou LS, Han Y, Zhu AJ, Sun XJ, Yang YJ. Expression of tumor necrosis factor and its receptor in gallstone and gallbladder carcinoma tissue. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2004;3(3):448–52. PubMed
Hayashi, N., Yamamoto, H., Hiraoka, N., Dono, K., Ito, Y., Okami, J., et al., Differential expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human bile duct epithelial cells and bile duct neoplasm . Hepatology, 2001. 34(4 Pt 1): p. 638–650.
Moreno M, Pimental F, Gasdar AF, Wistuba II, Miguel JF. TP53 abnormalities are frequent and early events in the sequential pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma. Ann Hepatol. 2005;4(3):192–9. PubMed
Liu E, Ruffino L, Kawamoto T, Franco E, Kurakata S, Fujiwara K, et al. Aspirin use and risk of biliary tract cancer: a population-based study in shanghai, China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2005;14(5):1315–8. CrossRef
Ooi A, Suzuki S, Nakazawa K, Ikatura J, Imoto I, Nakamura H, et al. Gene amplification of Myc and its coamplification with ERBB2 and EGFR in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Anticancer Res. 2009;29(1):19–26. PubMed
Leal, P., Garcia, P., Sandoval, A., Letelier,P., Brebi, P., Ili, C., et al., Immunohistochemical expression of phospho-mTOR is associated with poor prognosis in patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma . Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2013. 137(4): p. 552–557.
Guadagnolo BA, Huo J, Buchholz TA, Petereit DG. Disparities in hospice utilization among American Indian Medicare beneficiaries dying of cancer. Ethn Dis. 2014;24(4):393–8. PubMed
White C, McIlfatrick S, Dunwoody L, Watson M. Supporting and improving community health services-a prospective evaluation of ECHO technology in community palliative care nursing teams. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2015.
Arora, S., Smith, T., Snead, J., Zalud-Cerrato, S., Marr, L., Watson, M., et al., Project ECHO: an effective means of increasing palliative care capacity . Am J Manag Care, 2017. 23(7 Spec No): p. SP267-SP271.
Muller BG, De Aretxabala X, Gonzalez Domingo M. A review of recent data in the treatment of gallbladder cancer: what we know, what we do, and what should be done. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2014:e165–70.
Zhu AX, Meyerhardt JA, Blaszkowsky LS, Kamdadakone AR, Muzikansky AR, Zheng H, et al. Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab in advanced biliary-tract cancers and correlation of changes in 18-fluorodeoxyglucose PET with clinical outcome: a phase 2 study. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(1):48–54. CrossRefPubMed
- Gallbladder cancer: review of a rare orphan gastrointestinal cancer with a focus on populations of New Mexico
Jacklyn M. Nemunaitis
Rama R. Gullapalli
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Onkologie
Mail Icon II