The authors declare that there are no competing interests.
KI participated in the design of the study, performed the statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. MA and KN helped in gathering the data and participated in its coordination. AS and KO conceived the study, participated in its design and coordination, and helped in drafting the manuscript. All authors gave full approval of the version to be published. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Physical activity levels in childhood have decreased, making the promotion of children’s physical activity an important issue. The present study examined gender and grade differences in objectively measured sedentary behavior, physical activity, and physical activity guideline attainment among Japanese children and adolescents.
In total, 329 boys and 362 girls age 3–15 years completed the survey. School grade, gender, height, and weight were collected by questionnaires and physical activity objectively measured using an accelerometer (Lifecorder Suzuken Co.). Physical activity level (in MET) was classified as sedentary (<1.5), light (≥1.5 to <3), moderate (≥3 to <6), or vigorous (≥6). Continuous zero accelerometer counts for ≥20 min were censored and a valid accelerometry study required at least 3 days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) with > 600 min/day total wear time. Two-way analysis of covariance and logistic regression analyses, adjusted for weight status and accelerometer wear time, were used to examine gender and grade differences in physical activity variables and the likelihood of physical activity guideline attainment by gender and grade level.
Participants were sedentary 441.4 (SD, 140.1) min/day or 53.7 % of the average daily accelerometer wear time of 811.2 (118.7) min, engaged in light physical activity 307.1 (70.0) min or 38.4 % of wear time, moderate physical activity 34.6 (14.8) min (4.3 %), vigorous physical activity 28.3 (19.1) min (3.6 %), and took 12462.6 (4452.5) steps/day. Boys were more physically active and took more steps/day than girls. Students in higher grades were less active than those in lower grades. Boys were significantly more likely to meet physical activity guidelines than girls (OR: 2.07, 95 % CI: 1.45–2.96). Preschoolers (6.66, 4.01–11.06), lower-grade elementary school students (17.11, 8.80–33.27), and higher-grade elementary school students (7.49, 4.71–11.92) were more likely to meet guidelines than junior high school students.
Boys and lower-grade students engaged in more physical activity and were more likely to attain guidelines than girls and higher-grade students. These findings highlight the need for effective and sustainable strategies to promote physical activity in Japanese school children.