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05.02.2019 | Original Article | Ausgabe 5/2019

Acta Diabetologica 5/2019

Gender difference in the risk for cardiovascular events or mortality of patients with diabetic foot syndrome

Acta Diabetologica > Ausgabe 5/2019
Giuseppe Seghieri, Laura Policardo, Elisa Gualdani, Roberto Anichini, Paolo Francesconi
Wichtige Hinweise
Managed by Antonio Secchi.

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The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00592-019-01292-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), or mortality. The present study aims at ascertaining whether such DFS-related excess risk differs between genders, retrospectively investigating a population with diabetes from Tuscany, Italy, followed-up for 6 years (2011–2016).


People with diabetes living in Tuscany on January 1st 2011 identified by administrative databases, were divided by baseline history of prior DFS hospitalizations, stratified by presence/absence of peripheral vascular disease and evaluating, by Cox regression analysis, whether adjusted DFS-related excess risk of incident ASCVD, CKD or mortality differed between genders.


In an overall population of 165,650 subjects with diabetes (81,829M/83,821F), basal prevalence of DFS was twice higher among males, who were moreover at a significantly greater risk of all considered outcomes along the 6-year period. On the contrary, baseline DFS significantly increased the hospitalization risk for ASCVD, CKD and mortality equally or at a slightly greater extent in females, while the risk for stroke was significantly associated with DFS only among females (HR: 1.622 (1.314–1.980); p = 0.0001 vs. HR: 1.132 (0.955–1.332); p = NS). This finding was even reinforced in non-vascular DFS, which was associated with a significant raised risk for stroke, heart failure or mortality exclusively in females.


In this population, DFS prevalence and overall risk for ASCVD, CKD or mortality were significantly higher among males. Baseline co-presence of DFS, however, conferred a similar adjusted risk for all these outcomes between genders, and in case of non-vascular DFS the risk was significantly increased only among females.

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