Gender-based medicine is an innovative branch of biomedical research and represents a new perspective for the future of health research. Many studies have been published on gender medicine in adults but very few data regarding children are available.
A literature search covering articles published between 1stJuly, 2006 and 1st February, 2017 and concerning children only was conducted using multiple keywords and standardized terminology in Pubmed database. The search was limited to English-language publications. All relevant articles on endocrines, neurological, psychiatric, gastrointestinal, immunological, oncological, rheumatic, pneumological disorders, infectious diseases and analgesia were evaluated and pertinent articles were included in this review. Most of the available studies on gender disparity in childhood are about endocrine and neuro-psychiatric disorders, while there are few data in other areas of medicine.
Even if several studies on pediatric gender differences can be found on literature, few of them move forwards to analyze the reasons of the observed diversity. No data on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between boys and girls can be found. Hence, more efforts should be directed to investigate these topics in childhood.
Munakata H, Sei M, Ewis AA, Umeno M, Sato Y, Nakano T, et al. Prediction of Japanese children at risk for complications of childhood obesity: gender differences for intervention approaches. J Med Investig. 2010;57:62–8. CrossRef
Lee M, Choi S, Lee Y, Oh HH. The gender association of the SIRT1 rs7895833 polymorphism with pediatric obesity: a 3-year panel study. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2017;9:265–75. CrossRef
Tester J, Sharma S, Jasik CB, Mietus-Snyder M, Tinajero-Deck L. Gender differences in prediabetes and insulin resistance among 1356 obese children in northern California. Diabetes MetabSyndr. 2013;7:161–5.
Samuelsson U, Lindblad B, Carlsson A, Forsander G, Ivarsson S, Kockum I, et al. Better diabetes diagnosis study group. Residual beta cell function at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents varies with gender and season. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2013;29:85–9. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Wasniewska M, Arrigo T, Crisafulli G, Aversa T, Messina MF, Salzano G, De Luca F. In the Italian population sexual dimorphism affects pre-natal thyroid migration but not biochemical severity of gland ectopia and pre-natal bone maturation. J Endocrinol Investig. 2008;31:341–5. CrossRef
Tanidir C, Adaletli H, Gunes H, Kilicoglu AG, Mutlu C, Bahali MK, et al. Impact of gender, age at onset, and lifetime tic disorders on the clinical presentation and comorbidity pattern of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2015;25:425–31. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Galli L, Puliti D, Chiappini E, Gabiano C, Tovo PA, Pezzotti P, de Martino M. Writing Commitee. Lower mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in boys is independent of type of delivery and antiretroviral prophylaxis: the Italian register for HIV infection in children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005;40:479–85. CrossRefPubMed
Condo JU, Gage A, Mock N, Rice J, Greiner T. Sex differences in nutritional status of HIV-exposed children in Rwanda: a longitudinal study. Tropical Med Int Health. 2015;20:17–23. CrossRef
Shiau S, Kuhn L, Strehlau R, Martens L, McIlleron H, Meredith S, Wiesner L, Coovadia A, Abrams EJ, Arpadi SM. Sex differences in responses to antiretroviral treatment in south African HIV-infected children on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir- and nevirapine-based treatment. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:39. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-14-39. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Voysey M, Pollard AJ, Perera R, Fanshawe TR. Assessing sex-differences and the effect of timing of vaccination on immunogenicity, reactogenicity and efficacy of vaccines in young children: study protocol for an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e011680. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Projecto de Saúde de Bandim, Indepth Network, Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, Aaby P, Garly ML, Nielsen J, Ravn H, Martins C, Balé C, et al. Increased female-male mortality ratio associated with inactivated polio and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines: Observations from vaccination trials in Guinea-Bissau. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:247–52. CrossRef
Zein JG, Udeh BL, Gerald Teague W, Koroukian SM, Schlitz NK, Bleecker ER, Busse WB, Calhoun WJ, Castro M, Comhair SA, Fitzpatrick AM, Israel E, Wenzel SE, Holguin F, Gaston BM, Erzurum SC, The severe asthma research program. Impact of age and sex on outcomes and hospital cost of acute asthma in the United States, 2011-2012. PLoS One. 2016;11:e0157301. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Plevkova J, Buday T, Kavalcikova-Bogdanova N, Ioan I, Demoulin-Alexikova S. Sex differences in cough reflex. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2016.12.001.
Boerner KE, Eccleston C, Chambers CT, Keogh E. Sex differences in the efficacy of psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain. 2017;158:569–82. CrossRef
- Gender disparity in pediatrics: a review of the current literature
Maurizio de Martino
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Pädiatrie
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
Mail Icon II