The prognostic effect of gender on immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is not clear. We explored gender-related differences in clinicopathological features and renal outcomes in IgAN.
This was a single-centre retrospective study. Patients were divided into two groups according to gender. The clinicopathological features at biopsy and renal outcomes during the follow-up were collected and analysed. Renal outcomes were defined as the doubling of baseline serum creatinine and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2, dialysis, or renal transplantation). The prognostic effects of gender were evaluated by Cox regression models.
A total of 988 eligible IgAN patients were enrolled, and the ratio of males to females was 1:1.4. Compared with female patients, male patients had worse renal function, greater proteinuria, a higher prevalence of hypertension, hypertriglyceridaemia and hyperuricaemia, and more severe segmental sclerosis and tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis. However, haematuria occurred more frequently in female patients. During a median follow-up time of 48.6 (34.7, 62.7) months, no differences in renal survival rates were noted between the male and female groups. Multivariable Cox regression analyses revealed that gender was not a significant risk factor for renal outcomes after frequency matching of baseline eGFR and serum uric acid (SUA) levels. In addition, male and female patients shared similar risk factors, including a low eGFR and increased proteinuria and segmental sclerosis. In males, however, an elevated proportion of global glomerulosclerosis was also a poor prognostic factor for renal survival.
Male IgAN patients presented with worse clinicopathologic features than female patients, but no significant differences were observed in long-term renal survival between male and female patients by eGFR- and SUA level-matching.
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- Gender-related differences in clinicopathological characteristics and renal outcomes of Chinese patients with IgA nephropathy
- BioMed Central
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