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07.02.2018 | Review – Cancer Research | Ausgabe 4/2018

Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 4/2018

Generation of erythroid cells from polyploid giant cancer cells: re-thinking about tumor blood supply

Zeitschrift:
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology > Ausgabe 4/2018
Autoren:
Zhigang Yang, Hong Yao, Fei Fei, Yuwei Li, Jie Qu, Chunyuan Li, Shiwu Zhang
Wichtige Hinweise
Zhigang Yang, Hong Yao and Fei Fei contributed equally to the paper.

Abstract

Introduction

During development and tumor progression, cells need a sufficient blood supply to maintain development and rapid growth. It is reported that there are three patterns of blood supply for tumor growth: endothelium-dependent vessels, mosaic vessels, and vasculogenic mimicry (VM). VM was first reported in highly aggressive uveal melanomas, with tumor cells mimicking the presence and function of endothelial cells forming the walls of VM vessels. The walls of mosaic vessels are randomly lined with both endothelial cells and tumor cells. We previously proposed a three-stage process, beginning with VM, progressing to mosaic vessels, and eventually leading to endothelium-dependent vessels. However, many phenomena unique to VM channel formation remain to be elucidated, such as the origin of erythrocytes before VM vessels connect with endothelium-dependent vessels.

Results

In adults, erythroid cells are generally believed to be generated from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. In contrast, embryonic tissue obtains oxygen through formation of blood islands, which are largely composed of embryonic hemoglobin with a higher affinity with oxygen, in the absence of mature erythrocytes. Recent data from our laboratory suggest that embryonic blood-forming mechanisms also exist in cancer tissue, particularly when these tissues are under environmental stress such as hypoxia. We review the evidence from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and in vivo to support this previously underappreciated cell functionality in normal and cancer cells, including the ability to generate erythroid cells. We will also summarize the current understanding of tumor angiogenesis, VM, and our recent work on polyploid giant cancer cells, with emphasis on their ability to generate erythroid cells and their association with tumor growth under hypoxia.

Conclusion

An alternative embryonic pathway to obtain oxygen in cancer cells exists, particularly when they are under hypoxic conditions.

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