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01.12.2012 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2012 Open Access

Malaria Journal 1/2012

Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras

Zeitschrift:
Malaria Journal > Ausgabe 1/2012
Autoren:
Ana Cecilia Lopez, Andres Ortiz, Jorge Coello, Wilfredo Sosa-Ochoa, Rosa E Mejia Torres, Engels I Banegas, Irina Jovel, Gustavo A Fontecha
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1475-2875-11-391) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

ACL, AO and JC carried out the molecular work. WS assisted in the molecular work. REMT and EIB carried out the fieldwork, collected the samples and organized the microscopic diagnosis. WS and IJ were responsible for designing the study and data analysis. GAF was responsible for the study design, molecular tests implementation, and data analysis. All authors contributed to writing the manuscript.

Abstract

Background

Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras.

Methods

Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed.

Results and conclusion

A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77) for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84) for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35) for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2) was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30) block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33), and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11) (3D7 and FC27) were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.
Zusatzmaterial
Authors’ original file for figure 1
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Authors’ original file for figure 2
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Authors’ original file for figure 3
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Authors’ original file for figure 4
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Literatur
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