The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-391) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
ACL, AO and JC carried out the molecular work. WS assisted in the molecular work. REMT and EIB carried out the fieldwork, collected the samples and organized the microscopic diagnosis. WS and IJ were responsible for designing the study and data analysis. GAF was responsible for the study design, molecular tests implementation, and data analysis. All authors contributed to writing the manuscript.
Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite’s circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras.
Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed.
A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77) for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84) for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35) for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2) was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30) block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33), and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11) (3D7 and FC27) were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.
Breman JG, Alilio MS, Mills A: Conquering the intolerable burden of malaria: what's new, what's needed: a summary. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004, 71: 1-15. PubMed
Gentil F, Bargieri DY, Leite JA, Francoso KS, Patricio MB, Espindola NM, Vaz AJ, Palatnik-de-Sousa CB, Rodrigues MM, Costa FT, Soares IS: A recombinant vaccine based on domain II of Plasmodium vivax Apical Membrane Antigen 1 induces high antibody titres in mice. Vaccine. 2010, 28: 6183-6190. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.017. CrossRefPubMed
Mahajan RC, Farooq U, Dubey ML, Malla N: Genetic polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2005, 48: 429-438. PubMed
Takala SL, Escalante AA, Branch OH, Kariuki S, Biswas S, Chaiyaroj SC, Lal AA: Genetic diversity in the Block 2 region of the merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1) of Plasmodium falciparum: additional complexity and selection and convergence in fragment size polymorphism. Infect Genet Evol. 2006, 6: 417-424. 10.1016/j.meegid.2006.01.009. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Da Silveira LA, Dorta ML, Kimura EA, Katzin AM, Kawamoto F, Tanabe K, Ferreira MU: Allelic diversity and antibody recognition of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 during hypoendemic malaria transmission in the Brazilian amazon region. Infect Immun. 1999, 67: 5906-5916. PubMedCentralPubMed
Escalante AA, Grebert HM, Isea R, Goldman IF, Basco L, Magris M, Biswas S, Kariuki S, Lal AA: A study of genetic diversity in the gene encoding the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of Plasmodium falciparum from different transmission areas--XVI. Asembo Bay Cohort Project. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2002, 125: 83-90. 10.1016/S0166-6851(02)00216-5. CrossRefPubMed
Dias S, Somarathna M, Manamperi A, Escalante AA, Gunasekera AM, Udagama PV: Evaluation of the genetic diversity of domain II of Plasmodium vivax Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (PvAMA-1) and the ensuing strain-specific immune responses in patients from Sri Lanka. Vaccine. 2011, 29: 7491-7504. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.029. CrossRefPubMed
Zakeri S, Raeisi A, Afsharpad M, Kakar Q, Ghasemi F, Atta H, Zamani G, Memon MS, Salehi M, Djadid ND: Molecular characterization of Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates in Pakistan and Iran using pvmsp-1, pvmsp-3alpha and pvcsp genes as molecular markers. Parasitol Int. 2010, 59: 15-21. 10.1016/j.parint.2009.06.006. CrossRefPubMed
Haddad D, Snounou G, Mattei D, Enamorado IG, Figueroa J, Stahl S, Berzins K: Limited genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in field isolates from Honduras. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999, 60: 30-34. PubMed
Singh B, Bobogare A, Cox-Singh J, Snounou G, Abdullah MS, Rahman HA: A genus- and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction malaria detection assay for epidemiologic studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999, 60: 687-692. PubMed
National Center for Biotechnology Information: [ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/]
Secretaría de Salud de Honduras: Norma de Malaria en Honduras. 2010, Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Subsecretaría de Riesgos Poblacionales DGdPdlS, Programa Nacional de la Prevención y Control de la Malaria ed. 1st edition,
Gunasekera AM, Wickramarachchi T, Neafsey DE, Ganguli I, Perera L, Premaratne PH, Hartl D, Handunnetti SM, Udagama-Randeniya PV, Wirth DF: Genetic diversity and selection at the Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) locus in a Sri Lankan population. Mol Biol Evol. 2007, 24: 939-947. 10.1093/molbev/msm013. CrossRefPubMed
Bonilla JA, Validum L, Cummings R, Palmer CJ: Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax Pvcsp and Pvmsp1 in Guyana, South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006, 75: 830-835. PubMed
Storti-Melo LM, de Souza-Neiras WC, Cassiano GC, Joazeiro AC, Fontes CJ, Bonini-Domingos CR, Couto AA, Povoa MM, de Mattos LC, Cavasini CE: Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite variants and Duffy blood group genotypes in the Brazilian Amazon region. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009, 103: 672-678. 10.1016/j.trstmh.2008.07.018. CrossRefPubMed
Rodriguez MH, Gonzalez-Ceron L, Hernandez JE, Nettel JA, Villarreal C, Kain KC, Wirtz RA: Different prevalences of Plasmodium vivax phenotypes VK210 and VK247 associated with the distribution of Anopheles albimanus and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000, 62: 122-127. PubMed
Galardo AK, Arruda M, D'Almeida Couto AA, Wirtz R, Lounibos LP, Zimmerman RH: Malaria vector incrimination in three rural riverine villages in the Brazilian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007, 76: 461-469. PubMed
- Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras
Ana Cecilia Lopez
Rosa E Mejia Torres
Engels I Banegas
Gustavo A Fontecha
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
Mail Icon II