The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-60) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Hye-Lim Ju, Jung-Mi Kang contributed equally to this work.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
HLJ and JMK performed all the experiments and analysed the sequence data. SUM, JYK, HWL, KL, and BKN collected the blood samples. SUM performed sequence and phylogenetic analyses. BKN and TSK designed the study and supervised the study process. BKN wrote the paper. TSK, WMS, and JSL assisted in writing and editing the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) plays an essential role in erythrocyte invasion and a potential asexual blood stage vaccine candidate antigen against P. vivax. The polymorphic nature of PvDBP, particularly amino terminal cysteine-rich region (PvDBPII), represents a major impediment to the successful design of a protective vaccine against vivax malaria. In this study, the genetic polymorphism and natural selection at PvDBPII among Myanmar P. vivax isolates were analysed.
Fifty-four P. vivax infected blood samples collected from patients in Myanmar were used. The region flanking PvDBPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, and sequenced. The polymorphic characters and natural selection of the region were analysed using the DnaSP and MEGA4 programs.
Thirty-two point mutations (28 non-synonymous and four synonymous mutations) were identified in PvDBPII among the Myanmar P. vivax isolates. Sequence analyses revealed that 12 different PvDBPII haplotypes were identified in Myanmar P. vivax isolates and that the region has evolved under positive natural selection. High selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified as B- and T-cell epitopes of PvDBPII. Recombination may also be played a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvDBPII.
PvDBPII of Myanmar P. vivax isolates displays a high level of genetic polymorphism and is under selective pressure. Myanmar P. vivax isolates share distinct types of PvDBPII alleles that are different from those of other geographical areas. These results will be useful for understanding the nature of the P. vivax population in Myanmar and for development of PvDBPII-based vaccine.
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- Genetic polymorphism and natural selection of Duffy binding protein of Plasmodium vivax Myanmar isolates
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