The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-76) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This study forms part of the PhD thesis work of DKS. DKS collected mosquitoes, performed the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. DKS and SMO'L performed molecular analyses including PCR and DNA sequencing of the COII gene fragment. AP helped in the field collections, data analysis and in preparation of manuscript. DRB, NPS and SS helped in mosquito collections. KD and KB performed the molecular identification work. PKM and GUA helped in drafting of the manuscript. AP, JM and CW participated in the design of the study, data analysis, draft of manuscript, general supervision of the research group and fund acquisitions. All authors read and approved the final documents.
Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene.
Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history.
A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations.
The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its epidemiological significance further investigated. The lack of genetic population structure in the other north-east Indian populations likely reflects large population sizes of An. baimaii that, historically, were able to disperse through continuous forest habitats in the north-east India. Additional markers and analytical approaches are required to determine if recent deforestation is now preventing ongoing gene flow. Until such information is acquired, An. baimaii in north-east India should be treated as a single unit for the implementation of vector control measures.
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- Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA
Devojit K Sarma
Samantha M O'Loughlin
Dibya R Bhattacharyya
Pradumnya K Mohapatra
Nilanju P Sarma
Gias U Ahmed
- BioMed Central
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