The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-208) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
HY carried out the experiments and collected the data for the egg-dieldrin exposures, and drafted the manuscript. JG as project supervisor, oversaw the design of the egg- exposure study, as well as the progress of the manuscript, and managed the collaboration between authors. CAM together with SMS created the GSS ANO IPCL1 and provided the manuscript for this section. MQB performed the dose–response assays, provided essential expertise for the egg exposure experiments and contributed greatly to the development and editing of the manuscript. CFO designed and performed the radiation induced sterility study and completed the statistical analysis for this study, as well as for the egg exposure experiments in this manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The sterile insect technique (SIT) has been used with success for suppressing or eliminating important insect pests of agricultural or veterinary importance. In order to develop SIT for mosquitoes, female elimination prior to release is essential as they are the disease-transmitting sex. A genetic sexing strain (GSS) of Anopheles arabiensis was created based on resistance to dieldrin, and methods of sex separation at the egg stage were developed. The use of this strain for SIT will require sexually sterile males: useful radiation doses for this purpose were determined for pupae and adults.
For the creation of the sexing strain, dieldrin-resistant males were irradiated with 40 Gy using a 60Co source and were subsequently crossed to homozygous susceptible virgin females. Individual families were screened for semi-sterility and for male resistance to dieldrin. For sex separation, eggs of a resulting GSS, ANO IPCL1, were exposed to varying concentrations of dieldrin for different durations. Percent hatch, larval survival, and male and female emergence were recorded. Radiation induced sterility was determined following adult and pupa exposure to gamma rays at 0–105 Gy. Mortality induced by dieldrin treatment, and levels of sterility post radiation were investigated.
ANO IPCL1 contains a complex chromosome aberration that pseudo-links the male-determining Y chromosome and dieldrin resistance, conferring high natural semi-sterility. Exposure of eggs to 2, 3, and 4 ppm dieldrin solutions resulted in complete female elimination without a significant decrease of male emergence compared to the controls. A dose of 75 Gy reduced the fertility to 3.8 and 6.9% when males were irradiated as pupae or adults respectively, but the proportions of progeny of these males reaching adulthood were 0.6 and 1.5% respectively
The GSS ANO IPCL1 was shown to be a suitable strain for further testing for SIT though high semi-sterility is a disadvantage for mass rearing.
Authors’ original file for figure 112936_2012_2121_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 212936_2012_2121_MOESM2_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 312936_2012_2121_MOESM3_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 412936_2012_2121_MOESM4_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 512936_2012_2121_MOESM5_ESM.pdf
Authors’ original file for figure 612936_2012_2121_MOESM6_ESM.pdf
Dyck VA, Hendrichs JP, Robinson AS: The Sterile Insect Technique: Principles and Practice in Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management. 2005, Springer, Dordrecht CrossRef
Lofgren CS, Dame DA, Breeland SG, Weidhaas DE, Jeffery GM, Kaiser R, Ford HR, Boston MD, Baldwin KF: Release of chemosterilized males for the control ofAnopheles albimanusin El Salvador III. Field methods and population control. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1974, 23: 288-297. PubMed
Curtis CF, Akiyama J, Davidson G: A genetic sexing system inAnopheles gambiaespecies A. Mosq News. 1976, 36: 492-498.
Davidson G: Insecticide resistance inAnopheles gambiaeGiles: a case of simple Mendelian inheritance. Nature. 1956, 178: 861-863.
Asih PBS, Syahrani L, Rozi IEP, Pratama NR, Marantina SS, Arsyad DS, Mangunwardoyo W, Hawley W, Laihad F, Shinta S, Sukowati S, Lobo NF, Syafruddin D: Existence of therdlmutant alleles among theAnophelesmalaria vector in Indonesia. Malar J. 2012, 11: 57-10.1186/1475-2875-11-57. PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed
Salgado VL, Schnatterer S, Holmes KA: Ligand-gated chloride channel antagonists (fiproles). Modern crop protection compounds. Edited by: Kraemer W, Schirmer U. 2007, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, Weinheim, 1048-1069.
Davidson G, Hamon J: A case of dominant dieldrin resistance inAnopheles gambiaeGiles. Nature. 1962, 196: 1012- CrossRef
Robinson AS: Genetic sexing inAnopheles stephensiusing dieldrin resistance. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1986, 2: 93-95. PubMed
Cornel A: A. gambiae s.l. salivary gland chromosome preparation. Methods in Anopheles Research Manual. 2011
Damiens D, Benedict MQ, Wille M, Gilles JRL: An inexpensive and effective larval diet for Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae): Eat like a horse, a bird or a fish?. J Med Entomol. in press
R Development Core Team: R: A language and environment for statistical computing. 2010, R Foundation for Statistical Computing. 3-3-2010, Vienna, Austria, http://www.R-project.org,
Coluzzi M, Sabatini A: Cytogenetic observations on species A and B of theAnopheles gambiaecomplex. Parasitologia. 1967, 9: 73-88.
Oliva CF, Benedict MQ, Lemperiere G, Gilles J: Laboratory selection for an accelerated mosquito sexual development rate. Malar J. 2011, 10: 35-10.1186/1475-2875-10-35. CrossRef
Bailey DL, Lowe RE, Dame DA, Seawright JA: Mass rearing the genetically altered MACHO strain ofAnopheles albimanusWiedemann. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980, 29: 141-149. PubMed
Kaiser PE, Seawright JA, Dame DA, Joslyn DJ: Development of a genetic sexing system forAnopheles albimanus. J Econ Entomol. 1978, 71: 766-771. CrossRef
Kim SS, Seawright JA, Kaiser PE: A genetic sexing strain ofAnopheles quadrimaculatus, species A. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1987, 3: 50-53. PubMed
Baker RH, Sakai RK, Raana K: Genetic sexing for a mosquito sterile-male release. J Hered. 1981, 72: 216-218. PubMed
Steffens RJ: The combi-fly, a new concept for genetic control of fruit flies. Naturwissenschaften. 1982, 69: 600-601. 10.1007/BF00396362. CrossRef
Franz G: The "Combi fly concept" revisited: How much radiation is required to sterilise males of a genetic sexing strain?. Area-wide Control of Fruit Flies and other Insect Pests. Edited by: Tan K-H. 2000, Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 511-516.
Yakob L, Alphey L, Bonsall MB: Aedes aegypticontrol: the concomitant role of competition, space and transgenic technologies. J Appl Ecol. 2008, 45: 1258-1265. 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01498.x. CrossRef
Baker RH, Sakai RK, Saifuddin UT: Genetic sexing technique for a mosquito sterile male release. Nature. 1978, 274: 253-255. 10.1038/274253a0. CrossRef
- Genetic sex separation of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, by exposing eggs to dieldrin
Mark Q Benedict
Colin A Malcolm
Clelia F Oliva
Sharon M Soliban
Jeremie RL Gilles
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Innere Medizin
Meistgelesene Bücher aus der Inneren Medizin
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II