The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-159) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Jung-Yeon Kim, Hyung-Hwan Kim, Won-Ja Lee and Hyeong-Woo Lee contributed equally to this work.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
JYK, HHK, WJL and HWL conceived and designed the study and contributed to the execution of the research. HWL wrote the manuscript. HHK, SY, and HK contributed statistical analysis. YJK, HIS, and WJL collected the blood samples in the field. YJK, SWL, and HIS performed preparing the DNA samples for DNA sequencing, IFAT and ELISA. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
The malaria aldolase is widely used as rapid diagnostic test (RDT), but the efficacy in aspect of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis is not known. The genetic variation of Korean isolates was analysed and recombinant aldolase was evaluated as a serological antigen in Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Genomic DNA was purified and the aldolase gene of P. vivax from 25 patients’ blood samples was amplified. The samples came from 5 epidemic areas; Bucheon-si, Gimpo-si, Paju-si of Gyeonggido, Gangwha-gun of Incheon metropolitan city, and Cheorwon of Gangwon-do, South Korea. The antigenicity of the recombinant aldolase was tested by western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Sequence analysis of 25 Korean isolates of P. vivax showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of 1,110 nucleotides encoded a deduced protein of 369 amino acids (aa). This ORF showed 100% homology with the P. vivax Sal I strain (XM_00165894) and P. vivax WDK strain (AF247063), 87.4% homology with Plasmodium falciparum (AF179421), 90.6% homology with Plasmodium chabaudi (AF247060), 89.5% homology with Plasmodium vinckei (AF247061), and 96.7% homology with Plasmodium knowlesi. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at nucleotide 180 (G to A, n = 5) was also observed in the isolates. The expressed recombinant protein had a molecular weight of approximately 31 kDa (monomeric form) and 62 kDa (dimeric form) as analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Among 109 P. vivax patients, 32 (29.4%) had positive in an enzyme-linked absorbance assay (ELISA). This result showed significant correlation between ELISA and an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) (P < 0.0001).
The aldolase gene from Korean isolates of P. vivax showed one SNP at nucleotide position 180; this SNP mutant was discovered in only the western part of Han River, and included the regions of Ganghwa, Gimpo, and Bucheon. Based on the results, the relationship between antibody production against aldolase and the pattern of disease onset should be more investigated before using aldolase for serodiagnosis.
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- Genetic variation of aldolase from Korean isolates of Plasmodium vivax and its usefulness in serodiagnosis
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