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01.12.2017 | Short report | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Virology Journal 1/2017

Genotyping of high-risk anal human papillomavirus (HPV): ion torrent-next generation sequencing vs. linear array

Virology Journal > Ausgabe 1/2017
Rebecca G. Nowak, Nicholas P. Ambulos, Lisa M. Schumaker, Trevor J. Mathias, Ruth A. White, Jennifer Troyer, David Wells, Manhattan E. Charurat, Søren M. Bentzen, Kevin J. Cullen
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The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12985-017-0771-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Our next generation sequencing (NGS)-based human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assay showed a high degree of concordance with the Roche Linear Array (LA) with as little as 1.25 ng formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded-derived genomic DNA in head and neck and cervical cancer samples. This sensitive genotyping assay uses barcoded HPV PCR broad-spectrum general primers 5+/6+ (BSGP)5+/6+ applicable to population studies, but it’s diagnostic performance has not been tested in cases with multiple concurrent HPV infections.


We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), sensitivity and specificity of the NGS assay to detect HPV genotype infections as compared to the LA. DNA was previously extracted from ten anal swab samples from men who have sex with men in Nigeria enrolled on the TRUST/RV368 cohort study. Two-sample tests of proportions were used to examine differences in the diagnostic performance of the NGS assay to detect high vs. low-risk HPV type-specific infections.


In total there were 94 type-specific infections detected in 10 samples with a median of 9.5, range (9 to 10) per sample. Using the LA as the gold standard, 84.4% (95% CI: 75.2–91.2) of the same anal type-specific infections detected on the NGS assay had been detected by LA. The PPV and sensitivity differed significantly for high risk (PPV: 90%, 95% CI: 79.5–96.2; sensitivity: 93.1%, 95% CI: 83.3–98.1) as compared to low risk HPV (PPV: 73%, 95% CI: 54.1–87.7; sensitivity: 61.1, 95% CI: 43.5–76.9) (all p < 0.05). The NPV for all types was 92.5% (95% CI: 88.4–95.4). The NPV and specificity were similar for high and low risk HPVs (all p > 0.05). The NGS assay detected 10 HPV genotypes that were not among the 37 genotypes found on LA (30, 32, 43, 44, 74, 86, 87, 90, 91, 114).


The NGS assay accurately detects multiple HPV infections in individual clinical specimens with limited sample volume and has extended coverage compared to LA.
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