The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-13) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
John G Jones, Sean P Cumming, Manuel J Coelho e Silva, Ana M Teixeira and Manuel T Veríssimo contributed equally to this work.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
RAM participated in the design of the study, participated in the exercise protocols, performed the statistical analysis and drafted the manuscript. MTV, MJCS and AMT participated in the design of the study and helped to draft the manuscript. JGJ and SPC participated in the draft of the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors approved the final manuscript.
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between HbA1c and other risk factors like obesity, functional fitness, lipid profile, and inflammatory status in older adults. Epidemiological evidence suggests that HbA1c is associated with cardiovascular and ischemic heart disease risk. Excess of body weight and obesity are considered to play a central role in the development of these conditions. Age is associated with several risk factors as increased body fat and abdominal fat, deterioration of the lipid profile, diabetes, raising in inflammatory activity, or decreased functional fitness.
Data were available from 118 participants aged 65-95 years, including 72 women and 46 men. Anthropometric variables were taken, as was functional fitness, blood pressure and heart rate. Blood samples were collected after 12 h fasting, and HbA1c, hs-CRP, TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and glycaemia were calculated. Bivariate and partial correlations were performed to explore associations amongst the variables of interest. Differences between groups were explored by performing factorial analysis of variance.
HbA1c levels ranged from 4.6%-9.4% with 93% of the cases below 6.5%. Women had higher HbA1c, glycaemia, TC, BMI, and lower and upper flexibility than men. Men had higher BW, WC, 6-min walking distance, and VO2peak than women. Age, SBP, DBP, HRrest, HRpeak, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, TG/HDL-C ratio, Log10 hs-CRP, upper and lower strength, and agility and dynamic balance were similar in men and women. HbA1c had positive associations with glycaemia, HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, BW, WC, BMI, but not with functional fitness, TC, LDL-C, Log10 hs-CRP, PAD, or PAS. Obese participants had higher HbA1c than non-obese only when IDF and not USDHHS criteria were applied.
Older women had higher HbA1c than men, even after controlling for BMI. HbA1c associates equally with BW, BMI or WC. Population-based criteria are recommended to classify obesity and to identify higher levels of HbA1c in obese older adults. HbA1c associates with atherogenic dyslipidemia particularly with TG and TG/HDL-C ratio, but not with TC, HDL-C, or LDL-C. HbA1c is not associated with hs-CRP, and with functional fitness and aerobic endurance.
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- Glycated hemoglobin and associated risk factors in older adults
Raul A Martins
John G Jones
Sean P Cumming
Manuel J Coelho e Silva
Ana M Teixeira
Manuel T Veríssimo
- BioMed Central
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