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01.12.2018 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Ophthalmology 1/2018

Goldenhar syndrome with blepharophimosis and limb deformities: a case report

Zeitschrift:
BMC Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Xia Ding, Xi Wang, Yuan Cao, Jiaying Zhang, Ming Lin, Xianqun Fan, Jin Li

Abstract

Background

Goldenhar syndrome has variable presentations and can affect multiple regions of the body. Diagnoses are based on clinical manifestations. The association of Goldenhar syndrome with blepharophimosis and limb deformities has not previously been reported. Here, we describe a patient who was diagnosed with Goldenhar syndrome in association with blepharophimosis, ocular hypertelorism, hearing loss and limb deformities.

Case presentation

A 10-year-old male was first referred to our ophthalmology clinic on 2009–2-11 for ocular hypertelorism and microphthalmia when he had chin-up position. In the first ophthalmic examination, his palpebral fissure length was 19 mm on the right and 20 mm on the left, both palpebral fissure height was 4 mm, the inner intercanthal distance was 63 mm, both upper margin reflex distances were − 1 mm, the myodynamia of the levator palpebrae muscle was 2 mm on the right and 3 mm on the left, and his visual acuity was 20/40 on the right and 20/32 on the left. A physical examination revealed the patient had developed limb deformities in his hands, wrists, elbows and shoulders along with hearing loss. The patient was diagnosed with Goldenhar syndrome because his clinical presentations included ocular hypertelorism, hearing loss, and multiple acral joint deformities. He underwent a first operation in 2009 and a second in 2015. The second operation achieved a satisfactory result in which the horizontal fissure length was 28 mm on both sides, both palpebral fissure height was 10 mm, the inner intercanthal distance was 30 mm, and both of the upper margin reflex distances were 4 mm. He continued to wear hearing aids as usual. His hearing loss and joint deformities were slated for long-term follow-up at his parents’ request.

Conclusion

The patient, diagnosed with Goldenhar syndrome in association with blepharophimosis, ocular hypertelorism, hearing loss and limb deformities, underwent two operations and achieved a satisfactory result. The patient was submitted to long-term follow-up observations and symptomatic treatments that vary with age and systemic associations, as needed. When treating patients with Goldenhar syndrome, ophthalmology specialists should cooperate with a multi-disciplinary team of clinicians and reach agreement regarding the appropriate systemic and comprehensive treatments.
Literatur
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