Skip to main content
main-content

21.03.2022 | Handamputation | Pain Clinical Updates

Klinisches Update zu Phantomschmerz

Deutsche Fassung

verfasst von: PD Dr. Joachim Erlenwein, Martin Diers, Jennifer Ernst, Friederike Schulz, Frank Petzke

Erschienen in: Der Schmerz

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Zusammenfassung

Einleitung

Die meisten Patienten mit Amputation (bis zu 80 %) leiden postoperativ an Phantomschmerzen. Häufig handelt es sich um multimorbide Patienten, die aus schmerzmedizinischer Sicht viele Risikofaktoren für die Entwicklung von chronischem Schmerz aufweisen. Die operative Entfernung des Körperteils und die Durchtrennung peripherer Nerven führen zum Fehlen eines afferenten Feedbacks, was neuroplastische Veränderungen im sensomotorischen Kortex nach sich zieht. Das Empfinden von starkem Schmerz, periphere, spinale und kortikale Sensibilisierungsmechanismen sowie Veränderungen im Körperschema tragen zu chronischem Phantomschmerz bei. Auch psychosoziale Faktoren können Verlauf und Schweregrad des Schmerzes beeinflussen. Die moderne Amputationsmedizin liegt in interdisziplinärer Zuständigkeit.

Methoden

Diese Übersichtsarbeit soll einen interdisziplinären Überblick des aktuellen evidenzbasierten und klinischen Wissens geben.

Ergebnisse

Die wissenschaftliche Evidenz für das beste praktische Vorgehen ist schwach und steht im Kontrast zu verschiedenen klinischen Berichten, in denen die polypragmatische Anwendung von Medikamenten und interventionellen Verfahren beschrieben wird. Ansätze zur Wiederherstellung des Körperschemas und Integration von eingehenden sensomotorischen Signalen sind von Bedeutung. Moderne Techniken, wie Apps und virtuelle Realität, bieten eine spannende Ergänzung zu bereits etablierten Ansätzen, basierend auf der Spiegeltherapie. Die gezielte Prothesenversorgung erleichtert das Erreichen oder die Wiederherstellung der Extremitätenfunktion und spielt zugleich eine wichtige Rolle in der Reduktion der zentralen Reorganisation und Wiedererlangung des Körperschemas.

Diskussion

Zur Reduktion von starkem Phantomschmerz sind eine konsequente Prävention und Therapie von schweren postoperativen Schmerzen sowie eine frühe Integration medikamentöser und nichtmedikamentöser Interventionen erforderlich. Für das Erreichen oder den Erhalt der Körperfunktion sind eine vorausschauende Operationsplanung und -technik sowie ein angemessenes interdisziplinäres Management notwendig.
Zugang erhalten Sie mit:
e.Med Interdisziplinär

Für Ihren Erfolg in Klinik und Praxis - Die beste Hilfe in Ihrem Arbeitsalltag

Mit e.Med Interdisziplinär erhalten Sie Zugang zu allen CME-Fortbildungen und Fachzeitschriften auf SpringerMedizin.de.

Weitere Produktempfehlungen anzeigen
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Allami M, Faraji E, Mohammadzadeh F, Soroush MR (2019) Chronic musculoskeletal pain, phantom sensation, phantom and stump pain in veterans with unilateral below-knee amputation. Scand J Pain 9:779–787 Allami M, Faraji E, Mohammadzadeh F, Soroush MR (2019) Chronic musculoskeletal pain, phantom sensation, phantom and stump pain in veterans with unilateral below-knee amputation. Scand J Pain 9:779–787
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Alviar MJ, Hale T, Dungca M (2016) Pharmacologic interventions for treating phantom limb pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10:CD6380 PubMed Alviar MJ, Hale T, Dungca M (2016) Pharmacologic interventions for treating phantom limb pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 10:CD6380 PubMed
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Aman M, Festin C, Sporer ME, Gstoettner C, Prahm C, Bergmeister KD, Aszmann OC (2019) Bionic reconstruction: restoration of extremity function with osseointegrated and mind-controlled prostheses. Wien Klin Wochenschr 131:599–607 PubMedPubMedCentral Aman M, Festin C, Sporer ME, Gstoettner C, Prahm C, Bergmeister KD, Aszmann OC (2019) Bionic reconstruction: restoration of extremity function with osseointegrated and mind-controlled prostheses. Wien Klin Wochenschr 131:599–607 PubMedPubMedCentral
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Andoh J, Milde C, Diers M, Bekrater-Bodmann R, Trojan J, Fuchs X, Becker S, Desch S, Flor H (2020) Assessment of cortical reorganization and preserved function in phantom limb pain: a methodological perspective. Sci Rep 10:11504 PubMedPubMedCentral Andoh J, Milde C, Diers M, Bekrater-Bodmann R, Trojan J, Fuchs X, Becker S, Desch S, Flor H (2020) Assessment of cortical reorganization and preserved function in phantom limb pain: a methodological perspective. Sci Rep 10:11504 PubMedPubMedCentral
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Andoh J, Milde C, Tsao JW, Flor H (2018) Cortical plasticity as a basis of phantom limb pain: fact or fiction? Neuroscience 387:85–91 PubMed Andoh J, Milde C, Tsao JW, Flor H (2018) Cortical plasticity as a basis of phantom limb pain: fact or fiction? Neuroscience 387:85–91 PubMed
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Andreotti AM, Goiato MC, Pellizzer EP, Pesqueira AA, Guiotti AM, Gennari-Filho H, dos Santos DM (2014) Phantom eye syndrome: a review of the literature. ScientificWorldJournal 2014:686493 PubMedPubMedCentral Andreotti AM, Goiato MC, Pellizzer EP, Pesqueira AA, Guiotti AM, Gennari-Filho H, dos Santos DM (2014) Phantom eye syndrome: a review of the literature. ScientificWorldJournal 2014:686493 PubMedPubMedCentral
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Antfolk C, D’Alonzo M, Rosen B, Lundborg G, Sebelius F, Cipriani C (2013) Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics. Expert Rev Med Devices 10:45–54 PubMed Antfolk C, D’Alonzo M, Rosen B, Lundborg G, Sebelius F, Cipriani C (2013) Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics. Expert Rev Med Devices 10:45–54 PubMed
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Ayling OG, Montbriand J, Jiang J, Ladak S, Love L, Eisenberg N, Katz J, Clarke H, Roche-Nagle G (2014) Continuous regional anaesthesia provides effective pain management and reduces opioid requirement following major lower limb amputation. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 48:559–564 PubMed Ayling OG, Montbriand J, Jiang J, Ladak S, Love L, Eisenberg N, Katz J, Clarke H, Roche-Nagle G (2014) Continuous regional anaesthesia provides effective pain management and reduces opioid requirement following major lower limb amputation. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 48:559–564 PubMed
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Bach S, Noreng MF, Tjellden NU (1988) Phantom limb pain in amputees during the first 12 months following limb amputation, after preoperative lumbar epidural blockade. Pain 33:297–301 PubMed Bach S, Noreng MF, Tjellden NU (1988) Phantom limb pain in amputees during the first 12 months following limb amputation, after preoperative lumbar epidural blockade. Pain 33:297–301 PubMed
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Bartilotta BY, Galang-Boquiren MT, Greene CS (2014) Nonpainful phantom sensations in dentistry: an update of etiologic concepts. Gen Dent 62:19–21 PubMed Bartilotta BY, Galang-Boquiren MT, Greene CS (2014) Nonpainful phantom sensations in dentistry: an update of etiologic concepts. Gen Dent 62:19–21 PubMed
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Ben Abraham R, Marouani N, Weinbroum AA (2003) Dextromethorphan mitigates phantom pain in cancer amputees. Ann Surg Oncol 10:268–274 PubMed Ben Abraham R, Marouani N, Weinbroum AA (2003) Dextromethorphan mitigates phantom pain in cancer amputees. Ann Surg Oncol 10:268–274 PubMed
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Black JA, Nikolajsen L, Kroner K, Jensen TS, Waxman SG (2008) Multiple sodium channel isoforms and mitogen-activated protein kinases are present in painful human neuromas. Ann Neurol 64:644–653 PubMed Black JA, Nikolajsen L, Kroner K, Jensen TS, Waxman SG (2008) Multiple sodium channel isoforms and mitogen-activated protein kinases are present in painful human neuromas. Ann Neurol 64:644–653 PubMed
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Bone M, Critchley P, Buggy DJ (2002) Gabapentin in postamputation phantom limb pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Reg Anesth Pain Med 27:481–486 PubMed Bone M, Critchley P, Buggy DJ (2002) Gabapentin in postamputation phantom limb pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Reg Anesth Pain Med 27:481–486 PubMed
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Borghi B, D’Addabbo M, White PF, Gallerani P, Toccaceli L, Raffaeli W, Tognu A, Fabbri N, Mercuri M (2010) The use of prolonged peripheral neural blockade after lower extremity amputation: the effect on symptoms associated with phantom limb syndrome. Anesth Analg 111:1308–1315 PubMed Borghi B, D’Addabbo M, White PF, Gallerani P, Toccaceli L, Raffaeli W, Tognu A, Fabbri N, Mercuri M (2010) The use of prolonged peripheral neural blockade after lower extremity amputation: the effect on symptoms associated with phantom limb syndrome. Anesth Analg 111:1308–1315 PubMed
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Bosmans JC, Geertzen JH, Post WJ, van der Schans CP, Dijkstra PU (2010) Factors associated with phantom limb pain: a 31/2-year prospective study. Clin Rehabil 24:444–453 PubMed Bosmans JC, Geertzen JH, Post WJ, van der Schans CP, Dijkstra PU (2010) Factors associated with phantom limb pain: a 31/2-year prospective study. Clin Rehabil 24:444–453 PubMed
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Bostrom KJ, de Lussanet MH, Weiss T, Puta C, Wagner H (2014) A computational model unifies apparently contradictory findings concerning phantom pain. Sci Rep 4:5298 PubMedPubMedCentral Bostrom KJ, de Lussanet MH, Weiss T, Puta C, Wagner H (2014) A computational model unifies apparently contradictory findings concerning phantom pain. Sci Rep 4:5298 PubMedPubMedCentral
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Brodie EE, Whyte A, Niven CA (2007) Analgesia through the looking-glass? A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of viewing a „virtual“ limb upon phantom limb pain, sensation and movement. Eur J Pain 11:428–436 PubMed Brodie EE, Whyte A, Niven CA (2007) Analgesia through the looking-glass? A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of viewing a „virtual“ limb upon phantom limb pain, sensation and movement. Eur J Pain 11:428–436 PubMed
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Brodie EE, Whyte A, Waller B (2003) Increased motor control of a phantom leg in humans results from the visual feedback of a virtual leg. Neurosci Lett 341:167–169 PubMed Brodie EE, Whyte A, Waller B (2003) Increased motor control of a phantom leg in humans results from the visual feedback of a virtual leg. Neurosci Lett 341:167–169 PubMed
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Buchheit T, Van de Ven T, Hsia HL, McDuffie M, MacLeod DB, White W, Chamessian A, Keefe FJ, Buckenmaier CT, Shaw AD (2016) Pain phenotypes and associated clinical risk factors following traumatic amputation: results from veterans integrated pain evaluation research (VIPER). Pain Med 17:149–161 PubMedPubMedCentral Buchheit T, Van de Ven T, Hsia HL, McDuffie M, MacLeod DB, White W, Chamessian A, Keefe FJ, Buckenmaier CT, Shaw AD (2016) Pain phenotypes and associated clinical risk factors following traumatic amputation: results from veterans integrated pain evaluation research (VIPER). Pain Med 17:149–161 PubMedPubMedCentral
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Casale R, Ceccherelli F, Labeeb AA, Biella GE (2009) Phantom limb pain relief by contralateral myofascial injection with local anaesthetic in a placebo-controlled study: preliminary results. J Rehabil Med 41:418–422 PubMed Casale R, Ceccherelli F, Labeeb AA, Biella GE (2009) Phantom limb pain relief by contralateral myofascial injection with local anaesthetic in a placebo-controlled study: preliminary results. J Rehabil Med 41:418–422 PubMed
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Castellini C, Gruppioni E, Davalli A, Sandini G (2009) Fine detection of grasp force and posture by amputees via surface electromyography. J Physiol Paris 103:255–262 PubMed Castellini C, Gruppioni E, Davalli A, Sandini G (2009) Fine detection of grasp force and posture by amputees via surface electromyography. J Physiol Paris 103:255–262 PubMed
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Chan BL, Witt R, Charrow AP, Magee A, Howard R, Pasquina PF, Heilman KM, Tsao JW (2007) Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain. N Engl J Med 357:2206–2207 PubMed Chan BL, Witt R, Charrow AP, Magee A, Howard R, Pasquina PF, Heilman KM, Tsao JW (2007) Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain. N Engl J Med 357:2206–2207 PubMed
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Chou R, Gordon DB, de Leon-Casasola OA, Rosenberg JM, Bickler S, Brennan T, Carter T, Cassidy CL, Chittenden EH, Degenhardt E, Griffith S, Manworren R, McCarberg B, Montgomery R, Murphy J, Perkal MF, Suresh S, Sluka K, Strassels S, Thirlby R, Viscusi E, Walco GA, Warner L, Weisman SJ, Wu CL (2016) Management of postoperative pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American pain society, the American society of regional anesthesia and pain medicine, and the American society of anesthesiologists’ committee on regional anesthesia, executive committee, and administrative council. J Pain 17:131–157 PubMed Chou R, Gordon DB, de Leon-Casasola OA, Rosenberg JM, Bickler S, Brennan T, Carter T, Cassidy CL, Chittenden EH, Degenhardt E, Griffith S, Manworren R, McCarberg B, Montgomery R, Murphy J, Perkal MF, Suresh S, Sluka K, Strassels S, Thirlby R, Viscusi E, Walco GA, Warner L, Weisman SJ, Wu CL (2016) Management of postoperative pain: a clinical practice guideline from the American pain society, the American society of regional anesthesia and pain medicine, and the American society of anesthesiologists’ committee on regional anesthesia, executive committee, and administrative council. J Pain 17:131–157 PubMed
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Clarke C, Lindsay DR, Pyati S, Buchheit T (2013) Residual limb pain is not a diagnosis: a proposed algorithm to classify postamputation pain. Clin J Pain 29:551–562 PubMed Clarke C, Lindsay DR, Pyati S, Buchheit T (2013) Residual limb pain is not a diagnosis: a proposed algorithm to classify postamputation pain. Clin J Pain 29:551–562 PubMed
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Cole J (2007) Virtual & augmented reality, phantom experience and prosthetics. In: Gallagher P, Desmond DM, MacLachlan M (Hrsg) Neuroprostheses. Springer, London, S 141–153 Cole J (2007) Virtual & augmented reality, phantom experience and prosthetics. In: Gallagher P, Desmond DM, MacLachlan M (Hrsg) Neuroprostheses. Springer, London, S 141–153
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Cole J, Crowle S, Austwick G, Slater DH (2009) Exploratory findings with virtual reality for phantom limb pain; from stump motion to agency and analgesia. Disabil Rehabil 31:846–854 PubMed Cole J, Crowle S, Austwick G, Slater DH (2009) Exploratory findings with virtual reality for phantom limb pain; from stump motion to agency and analgesia. Disabil Rehabil 31:846–854 PubMed
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Cordella F, Ciancio AL, Sacchetti R, Davalli A, Cutti AG, Guglielmelli E, Zollo L (2016) Literature review on needs of upper limb prosthesis users. Front Neurosci 10:209 PubMedPubMedCentral Cordella F, Ciancio AL, Sacchetti R, Davalli A, Cutti AG, Guglielmelli E, Zollo L (2016) Literature review on needs of upper limb prosthesis users. Front Neurosci 10:209 PubMedPubMedCentral
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Davis RW (1993) Phantom sensation, phantom pain, and stump pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 74:79–91 PubMed Davis RW (1993) Phantom sensation, phantom pain, and stump pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 74:79–91 PubMed
29.
Zurück zum Zitat De Nunzio AM, Schweisfurth MA, Ge N, Falla D, Hahne J, Godecke K, Petzke F, Siebertz M, Dechent P, Weiss T, Flor H, Graimann B, Aszmann OC, Farina D (2018) Relieving phantom limb pain with multimodal sensory-motor training. J Neural Eng 15:66022 PubMed De Nunzio AM, Schweisfurth MA, Ge N, Falla D, Hahne J, Godecke K, Petzke F, Siebertz M, Dechent P, Weiss T, Flor H, Graimann B, Aszmann OC, Farina D (2018) Relieving phantom limb pain with multimodal sensory-motor training. J Neural Eng 15:66022 PubMed
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Desmond DM, Maclachlan M (2010) Prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain in the long term after upper limb amputation. Int J Rehabil Res 33:279–282 PubMed Desmond DM, Maclachlan M (2010) Prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain in the long term after upper limb amputation. Int J Rehabil Res 33:279–282 PubMed
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Desmond DM, O’Neill K, de Paor A, McDarby G, MacLachlan M (2006) Augmenting the reality of phantom limbs: three case studies using an augmented mirror box procedure. J Prosthet Orthot 18:74–79 Desmond DM, O’Neill K, de Paor A, McDarby G, MacLachlan M (2006) Augmenting the reality of phantom limbs: three case studies using an augmented mirror box procedure. J Prosthet Orthot 18:74–79
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Devan H, Hendrick P, Ribeiro DC, Hale LA, Carman A (2014) Asymmetrical movements of the lumbopelvic region: is this a potential mechanism for low back pain in people with lower limb amputation? Med Hypotheses 82:77–85 PubMed Devan H, Hendrick P, Ribeiro DC, Hale LA, Carman A (2014) Asymmetrical movements of the lumbopelvic region: is this a potential mechanism for low back pain in people with lower limb amputation? Med Hypotheses 82:77–85 PubMed
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Devan H, Tumilty S, Smith C (2012) Physical activity and lower-back pain in persons with traumatic transfemoral amputation: a national cross-sectional survey. J Rehabil Res Dev 49:1457–1466 PubMed Devan H, Tumilty S, Smith C (2012) Physical activity and lower-back pain in persons with traumatic transfemoral amputation: a national cross-sectional survey. J Rehabil Res Dev 49:1457–1466 PubMed
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Dhillon GS, Horch KW (2005) Direct neural sensory feedback and control of a prosthetic arm. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 13:468–472 PubMed Dhillon GS, Horch KW (2005) Direct neural sensory feedback and control of a prosthetic arm. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 13:468–472 PubMed
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Diers M, Christmann C, Koeppe C, Ruf M, Flor H (2010) Mirrored, imagined and executed movements differentially activate sensorimotor cortex in amputees with and without phantom limb pain. Pain 149:296–304 PubMed Diers M, Christmann C, Koeppe C, Ruf M, Flor H (2010) Mirrored, imagined and executed movements differentially activate sensorimotor cortex in amputees with and without phantom limb pain. Pain 149:296–304 PubMed
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Dietrich C, Nehrdich S, Seifert S, Blume KR, Miltner WHR, Hofmann GO, Weiss T (2018) Leg prosthesis with somatosensory feedback reduces phantom limb pain and increases functionality. Front Neurol 9:270 PubMedPubMedCentral Dietrich C, Nehrdich S, Seifert S, Blume KR, Miltner WHR, Hofmann GO, Weiss T (2018) Leg prosthesis with somatosensory feedback reduces phantom limb pain and increases functionality. Front Neurol 9:270 PubMedPubMedCentral
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Dietrich C, Walter-Walsh K, Preissler S, Hofmann GO, Witte OW, Miltner WH, Weiss T (2012) Sensory feedback prosthesis reduces phantom limb pain: proof of a principle. Neurosci Lett 507:97–100 PubMed Dietrich C, Walter-Walsh K, Preissler S, Hofmann GO, Witte OW, Miltner WH, Weiss T (2012) Sensory feedback prosthesis reduces phantom limb pain: proof of a principle. Neurosci Lett 507:97–100 PubMed
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Dumanian GA, Potter BK, Mioton LM, Ko JH, Cheesborough JE, Souza JM, Ertl WJ, Tintle SM, Nanos GP, Valerio IL, Kuiken TA, Apkarian AV, Porter K, Jordan SW (2019) Targeted muscle reinnervation treats neuroma and phantom pain in major limb amputees: a randomized clinical trial. Ann Surg 270:238–246 PubMed Dumanian GA, Potter BK, Mioton LM, Ko JH, Cheesborough JE, Souza JM, Ertl WJ, Tintle SM, Nanos GP, Valerio IL, Kuiken TA, Apkarian AV, Porter K, Jordan SW (2019) Targeted muscle reinnervation treats neuroma and phantom pain in major limb amputees: a randomized clinical trial. Ann Surg 270:238–246 PubMed
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Ehde DM, Czerniecki JM, Smith DG, Campbell KM, Edwards WT, Jensen MP, Robinson LR (2000) Chronic phantom sensations, phantom pain, residual limb pain, and other regional pain after lower limb amputation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 81:1039–1044 PubMed Ehde DM, Czerniecki JM, Smith DG, Campbell KM, Edwards WT, Jensen MP, Robinson LR (2000) Chronic phantom sensations, phantom pain, residual limb pain, and other regional pain after lower limb amputation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 81:1039–1044 PubMed
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Ehrsson HH, Rosen B, Stockselius A, Ragno C, Kohler P, Lundborg G (2008) Upper limb amputees can be induced to experience a rubber hand as their own. Brain 131:3443–3452 PubMedPubMedCentral Ehrsson HH, Rosen B, Stockselius A, Ragno C, Kohler P, Lundborg G (2008) Upper limb amputees can be induced to experience a rubber hand as their own. Brain 131:3443–3452 PubMedPubMedCentral
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Eichenberger U, Neff F, Sveticic G, Bjorgo S, Petersen-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Curatolo M (2008) Chronic phantom limb pain: the effects of calcitonin, ketamine, and their combination on pain and sensory thresholds. Anesth Analg 106:1265–1273 PubMed Eichenberger U, Neff F, Sveticic G, Bjorgo S, Petersen-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Curatolo M (2008) Chronic phantom limb pain: the effects of calcitonin, ketamine, and their combination on pain and sensory thresholds. Anesth Analg 106:1265–1273 PubMed
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Eipe N, Penning J, Yazdi F, Mallick R, Turner L, Ahmadzai N, Ansari MT (2015) Perioperative use of pregabalin for acute pain—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain 156:1284–1300 PubMed Eipe N, Penning J, Yazdi F, Mallick R, Turner L, Ahmadzai N, Ansari MT (2015) Perioperative use of pregabalin for acute pain—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain 156:1284–1300 PubMed
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Elizaga AM, Smith DG, Sharar SR, Edwards WT, Hansen ST Jr. (1994) Continuous regional analgesia by intraneural block: effect on postoperative opioid requirements and phantom limb pain following amputation. J Rehabil Res Dev 31:179–187 PubMed Elizaga AM, Smith DG, Sharar SR, Edwards WT, Hansen ST Jr. (1994) Continuous regional analgesia by intraneural block: effect on postoperative opioid requirements and phantom limb pain following amputation. J Rehabil Res Dev 31:179–187 PubMed
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Finger S, Hustwit MP (2003) Five early accounts of phantom limb in context: Pare, Descartes, Lemos, Bell, and Mitchell. Neurosurgery 52:675–686 (discussion 685–686) PubMed Finger S, Hustwit MP (2003) Five early accounts of phantom limb in context: Pare, Descartes, Lemos, Bell, and Mitchell. Neurosurgery 52:675–686 (discussion 685–686) PubMed
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Fisher A, Meller Y (1991) Continuous postoperative regional analgesia by nerve sheath block for amputation surgery—a pilot study. Anesth Analg 72:300–303 PubMed Fisher A, Meller Y (1991) Continuous postoperative regional analgesia by nerve sheath block for amputation surgery—a pilot study. Anesth Analg 72:300–303 PubMed
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Flor H (2002) Phantom-limb pain: characteristics, causes, and treatment. Lancet Neurol 1:182–189 PubMed Flor H (2002) Phantom-limb pain: characteristics, causes, and treatment. Lancet Neurol 1:182–189 PubMed
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Flor H (2008) Maladaptive plasticity, memory for pain and phantom limb pain: review and suggestions for new therapies. Expert Rev Neurother 8:809–818 PubMed Flor H (2008) Maladaptive plasticity, memory for pain and phantom limb pain: review and suggestions for new therapies. Expert Rev Neurother 8:809–818 PubMed
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Flor H, Denke C, Schaefer M, Grusser S (2001) Effect of sensory discrimination training on cortical reorganisation and phantom limb pain. Lancet 357:1763–1764 PubMed Flor H, Denke C, Schaefer M, Grusser S (2001) Effect of sensory discrimination training on cortical reorganisation and phantom limb pain. Lancet 357:1763–1764 PubMed
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Flor H, Diers M, Andoh J (2013) The neural basis of phantom limb pain. Trends Cogn Sci 17:307–308 PubMed Flor H, Diers M, Andoh J (2013) The neural basis of phantom limb pain. Trends Cogn Sci 17:307–308 PubMed
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Flor H, Elbert T, Knecht S, Wienbruch C, Pantev C, Birbaumer N, Larbig W, Taub E (1995) Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation. Nature 375:482–484 PubMed Flor H, Elbert T, Knecht S, Wienbruch C, Pantev C, Birbaumer N, Larbig W, Taub E (1995) Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation. Nature 375:482–484 PubMed
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Flor H, Nikolajsen L, Staehelin Jensen T (2006) Phantom limb pain: a case of maladaptive CNS plasticity? Nat Rev Neurosci 7:873–881 PubMed Flor H, Nikolajsen L, Staehelin Jensen T (2006) Phantom limb pain: a case of maladaptive CNS plasticity? Nat Rev Neurosci 7:873–881 PubMed
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Foell J, Bekrater-Bodmann R, Diers M, Flor H (2014) Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain: brain changes and the role of body representation. Eur J Pain 18:729–739 PubMed Foell J, Bekrater-Bodmann R, Diers M, Flor H (2014) Mirror therapy for phantom limb pain: brain changes and the role of body representation. Eur J Pain 18:729–739 PubMed
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Fuchs X, Bekrater-Bodmann R, Flor H (2015) The role of maladaptive plasticity and emotional and cognitive variables. Pain, emotion and cognition: a complex nexus. Springer, Heidelberg/New York, S 189–207 Fuchs X, Bekrater-Bodmann R, Flor H (2015) The role of maladaptive plasticity and emotional and cognitive variables. Pain, emotion and cognition: a complex nexus. Springer, Heidelberg/New York, S 189–207
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Fuchs X, Flor H, Bekrater-Bodmann R (2018) Psychological factors associated with phantom limb pain: a review of recent findings. Pain Res Manag 2018:5080123 PubMedPubMedCentral Fuchs X, Flor H, Bekrater-Bodmann R (2018) Psychological factors associated with phantom limb pain: a review of recent findings. Pain Res Manag 2018:5080123 PubMedPubMedCentral
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Gailey R, Allen K, Castles J, Kucharik J, Roeder M (2008) Review of secondary physical conditions associated with lower-limb amputation and long-term prosthesis use. J Rehabil Res Dev 45:15–29 PubMed Gailey R, Allen K, Castles J, Kucharik J, Roeder M (2008) Review of secondary physical conditions associated with lower-limb amputation and long-term prosthesis use. J Rehabil Res Dev 45:15–29 PubMed
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Geffen GJ van, Bruhn J, Gielen MJ, Scheffer GJ (2008) Pain relief in amputee patients by ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Eur J Anaesthesiol 25:424–425 PubMed Geffen GJ van, Bruhn J, Gielen MJ, Scheffer GJ (2008) Pain relief in amputee patients by ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Eur J Anaesthesiol 25:424–425 PubMed
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Giraux P, Sirigu A (2003) Illusory movements of the paralyzed limb restore motor cortex activity. Neuroimage 20(1):S107–111 PubMed Giraux P, Sirigu A (2003) Illusory movements of the paralyzed limb restore motor cortex activity. Neuroimage 20(1):S107–111 PubMed
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Giummarra MJ, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Nicholls ME, Gibson SJ, Bradshaw JL (2010) The phantom in the mirror: a modified rubber-hand illusion in amputees and normals. Perception 39:103–118 PubMed Giummarra MJ, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Nicholls ME, Gibson SJ, Bradshaw JL (2010) The phantom in the mirror: a modified rubber-hand illusion in amputees and normals. Perception 39:103–118 PubMed
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Giummarra MJ, Gibson SJ, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Bradshaw JL (2008) Mechanisms underlying embodiment, disembodiment and loss of embodiment. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:143–160 PubMed Giummarra MJ, Gibson SJ, Georgiou-Karistianis N, Bradshaw JL (2008) Mechanisms underlying embodiment, disembodiment and loss of embodiment. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 32:143–160 PubMed
60.
Zurück zum Zitat Grant AJ, Wood C (2008) The effect of intra-neural local anaesthetic infusion on pain following major lower limb amputation. Scott Med J 53:4–6 PubMed Grant AJ, Wood C (2008) The effect of intra-neural local anaesthetic infusion on pain following major lower limb amputation. Scott Med J 53:4–6 PubMed
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Hall N, Eldabe S (2018) Phantom limb pain: a review of pharmacological management. Br J Pain 12:202–207 PubMed Hall N, Eldabe S (2018) Phantom limb pain: a review of pharmacological management. Br J Pain 12:202–207 PubMed
62.
Zurück zum Zitat Halligan PW, Marshall JC, Hunt M, Wade DT (1997) Somatosensory assessment: can seeing produce feeling? J Neurol 244:199–203 PubMed Halligan PW, Marshall JC, Hunt M, Wade DT (1997) Somatosensory assessment: can seeing produce feeling? J Neurol 244:199–203 PubMed
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Hanley MA, Jensen MP, Smith DG, Ehde DM, Edwards WT, Robinson LR (2007) Preamputation pain and acute pain predict chronic pain after lower extremity amputation. J Pain 8:102–109 PubMed Hanley MA, Jensen MP, Smith DG, Ehde DM, Edwards WT, Robinson LR (2007) Preamputation pain and acute pain predict chronic pain after lower extremity amputation. J Pain 8:102–109 PubMed
64.
Zurück zum Zitat Hauser W, Finn DP, Kalso E, Krcevski-Skvarc N, Kress HG, Morlion B, Perrot S, Schafer M, Wells C, Brill S (2018) European pain federation (EFIC) position paper on appropriate use of cannabis-based medicines and medical cannabis for chronic pain management. Eur J Pain 22:1547–1564 PubMed Hauser W, Finn DP, Kalso E, Krcevski-Skvarc N, Kress HG, Morlion B, Perrot S, Schafer M, Wells C, Brill S (2018) European pain federation (EFIC) position paper on appropriate use of cannabis-based medicines and medical cannabis for chronic pain management. Eur J Pain 22:1547–1564 PubMed
65.
Zurück zum Zitat Hill A (1999) Phantom limb pain: a review of the literature on attributes and potential mechanisms. J Pain Symptom Manage 17:125–142 PubMed Hill A (1999) Phantom limb pain: a review of the literature on attributes and potential mechanisms. J Pain Symptom Manage 17:125–142 PubMed
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Hunter JP, Katz J, Davis KD (2003) The effect of tactile and visual sensory inputs on phantom limb awareness. Brain 126(3):579–589 PubMed Hunter JP, Katz J, Davis KD (2003) The effect of tactile and visual sensory inputs on phantom limb awareness. Brain 126(3):579–589 PubMed
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Huse E, Larbig W, Flor H, Birbaumer N (2001) The effect of opioids on phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization. Pain 90:47–55 PubMed Huse E, Larbig W, Flor H, Birbaumer N (2001) The effect of opioids on phantom limb pain and cortical reorganization. Pain 90:47–55 PubMed
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Huse E, Preissl H, Larbig W, Birbaumer N (2001) Phantom limb pain. Lancet 358:1015 PubMed Huse E, Preissl H, Larbig W, Birbaumer N (2001) Phantom limb pain. Lancet 358:1015 PubMed
69.
Zurück zum Zitat Ip HY, Abrishami A, Peng PW, Wong J, Chung F (2009) Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology 111:657–677 PubMed Ip HY, Abrishami A, Peng PW, Wong J, Chung F (2009) Predictors of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption: a qualitative systematic review. Anesthesiology 111:657–677 PubMed
70.
Zurück zum Zitat Jaeger H, Maier C (1992) Calcitonin in phantom limb pain: a double-blind study. Pain 48:21–27 PubMed Jaeger H, Maier C (1992) Calcitonin in phantom limb pain: a double-blind study. Pain 48:21–27 PubMed
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Jahangiri M, Jayatunga AP, Bradley JW, Dark CH (1994) Prevention of phantom pain after major lower limb amputation by epidural infusion of diamorphine, clonidine and bupivacaine. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 76:324–326 PubMedPubMedCentral Jahangiri M, Jayatunga AP, Bradley JW, Dark CH (1994) Prevention of phantom pain after major lower limb amputation by epidural infusion of diamorphine, clonidine and bupivacaine. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 76:324–326 PubMedPubMedCentral
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Jensen MP, Ehde DM, Hoffman AJ, Patterson DR, Czerniecki JM, Robinson LR (2002) Cognitions, coping and social environment predict adjustment to phantom limb pain. Pain 95:133–142 PubMed Jensen MP, Ehde DM, Hoffman AJ, Patterson DR, Czerniecki JM, Robinson LR (2002) Cognitions, coping and social environment predict adjustment to phantom limb pain. Pain 95:133–142 PubMed
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Jin L, Kollewe K, Krampfl K, Dengler R, Mohammadi B (2009) Treatment of phantom limb pain with botulinum toxin type A. Pain Med 10:300–303 PubMed Jin L, Kollewe K, Krampfl K, Dengler R, Mohammadi B (2009) Treatment of phantom limb pain with botulinum toxin type A. Pain Med 10:300–303 PubMed
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Johnson MI, Mulvey MR, Bagnall AM (2015) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD7264 PubMed Johnson MI, Mulvey MR, Bagnall AM (2015) Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for phantom pain and stump pain following amputation in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD7264 PubMed
75.
Zurück zum Zitat Karanikolas M, Aretha D, Tsolakis I, Monantera G, Kiekkas P, Papadoulas S, Swarm RA, Filos KS (2011) Optimized perioperative analgesia reduces chronic phantom limb pain intensity, prevalence, and frequency: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Anesthesiology 114:1144–1154 PubMed Karanikolas M, Aretha D, Tsolakis I, Monantera G, Kiekkas P, Papadoulas S, Swarm RA, Filos KS (2011) Optimized perioperative analgesia reduces chronic phantom limb pain intensity, prevalence, and frequency: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Anesthesiology 114:1144–1154 PubMed
76.
Zurück zum Zitat Katz J, Seltzer Z (2009) Transition from acute to chronic postsurgical pain: risk factors and protective factors. Expert Rev Neurother 9:723–744 PubMed Katz J, Seltzer Z (2009) Transition from acute to chronic postsurgical pain: risk factors and protective factors. Expert Rev Neurother 9:723–744 PubMed
77.
Zurück zum Zitat Kern KU, Baust H, Hofmann W, Holzmuller R, Maihöfner C, Heskamp ML (2014) Capsaicin 8 % cutaneous patches for phantom limb pain. Results from everyday practice (non-interventional study). Schmerz 28:374–383 PubMed Kern KU, Baust H, Hofmann W, Holzmuller R, Maihöfner C, Heskamp ML (2014) Capsaicin 8 % cutaneous patches for phantom limb pain. Results from everyday practice (non-interventional study). Schmerz 28:374–383 PubMed
78.
Zurück zum Zitat Kern KU, Martin C, Scheicher S, Muller H (2006) Referred pain from amputation stump trigger points into the phantom limb. Schmerz 20:300–302–6 PubMed Kern KU, Martin C, Scheicher S, Muller H (2006) Referred pain from amputation stump trigger points into the phantom limb. Schmerz 20:300–302–6 PubMed
79.
Zurück zum Zitat Kern U, Busch V, Muller R, Kohl M, Birklein F (2012) Phantom limb pain in daily practice—still a lot of work to do! Pain Med 13:1611–1626 PubMed Kern U, Busch V, Muller R, Kohl M, Birklein F (2012) Phantom limb pain in daily practice—still a lot of work to do! Pain Med 13:1611–1626 PubMed
80.
Zurück zum Zitat Kikkert S, Mezue M, O’Shea J, Henderson Slater D, Johansen-Berg H, Tracey I, Makin TR (2019) Neural basis of induced phantom limb pain relief. Ann Neurol 85:59–73 PubMedPubMedCentral Kikkert S, Mezue M, O’Shea J, Henderson Slater D, Johansen-Berg H, Tracey I, Makin TR (2019) Neural basis of induced phantom limb pain relief. Ann Neurol 85:59–73 PubMedPubMedCentral
81.
Zurück zum Zitat Kim PS, Ko JH, O’Shaughnessy KK, Kuiken TA, Pohlmeyer EA, Dumanian GA (2012) The effects of targeted muscle reinnervation on neuromas in a rabbit rectus abdominis flap model. J Hand Surg Am 37:1609–1616 PubMed Kim PS, Ko JH, O’Shaughnessy KK, Kuiken TA, Pohlmeyer EA, Dumanian GA (2012) The effects of targeted muscle reinnervation on neuromas in a rabbit rectus abdominis flap model. J Hand Surg Am 37:1609–1616 PubMed
82.
Zurück zum Zitat Kulkarni J, Adams J, Thomas E, Silman A (1998) Association between amputation, arthritis and osteopenia in British male war veterans with major lower limb amputations. Clin Rehabil 12:348–353 PubMed Kulkarni J, Adams J, Thomas E, Silman A (1998) Association between amputation, arthritis and osteopenia in British male war veterans with major lower limb amputations. Clin Rehabil 12:348–353 PubMed
83.
Zurück zum Zitat Kulkarni J, Gaine WJ, Buckley JG, Rankine JJ, Adams J (2005) Chronic low back pain in traumatic lower limb amputees. Clin Rehabil 19:81–86 PubMed Kulkarni J, Gaine WJ, Buckley JG, Rankine JJ, Adams J (2005) Chronic low back pain in traumatic lower limb amputees. Clin Rehabil 19:81–86 PubMed
84.
Zurück zum Zitat Lambert A, Dashfield A, Cosgrove C, Wilkins D, Walker A, Ashley S (2001) Randomized prospective study comparing preoperative epidural and intraoperative perineural analgesia for the prevention of postoperative stump and phantom limb pain following major amputation. Reg Anesth Pain Med 26:316–321 Lambert A, Dashfield A, Cosgrove C, Wilkins D, Walker A, Ashley S (2001) Randomized prospective study comparing preoperative epidural and intraoperative perineural analgesia for the prevention of postoperative stump and phantom limb pain following major amputation. Reg Anesth Pain Med 26:316–321
85.
Zurück zum Zitat Larbig W, Andoh J, Huse E, Stahl-Corino D, Montoya P, Seltzer Z, Flor H (2019) Pre- and postoperative predictors of phantom limb pain. Neurosci Lett 702:44–50 PubMed Larbig W, Andoh J, Huse E, Stahl-Corino D, Montoya P, Seltzer Z, Flor H (2019) Pre- and postoperative predictors of phantom limb pain. Neurosci Lett 702:44–50 PubMed
86.
Zurück zum Zitat Liu B, Liu R, Wang L (2017) A meta-analysis of the preoperative use of gabapentinoids for the treatment of acute postoperative pain following spinal surgery. Medicine 96:e8031 PubMedPubMedCentral Liu B, Liu R, Wang L (2017) A meta-analysis of the preoperative use of gabapentinoids for the treatment of acute postoperative pain following spinal surgery. Medicine 96:e8031 PubMedPubMedCentral
87.
Zurück zum Zitat Lotze M, Flor H, Grodd W, Larbig W, Birbaumer N (2001) Phantom movements and pain. An fMRI study in upper limb amputees. Brain 124(11):2268–2277 PubMed Lotze M, Flor H, Grodd W, Larbig W, Birbaumer N (2001) Phantom movements and pain. An fMRI study in upper limb amputees. Brain 124(11):2268–2277 PubMed
88.
Zurück zum Zitat Lotze M, Grodd W, Birbaumer N, Erb M, Huse E, Flor H (1999) Does use of a myoelectric prosthesis prevent cortical reorganization and phantom limb pain? Nat Neurosci 2:501–502 PubMed Lotze M, Grodd W, Birbaumer N, Erb M, Huse E, Flor H (1999) Does use of a myoelectric prosthesis prevent cortical reorganization and phantom limb pain? Nat Neurosci 2:501–502 PubMed
89.
Zurück zum Zitat Lotze M, Montoya P, Erb M, Hulsmann E, Flor H, Klose U, Birbaumer N, Grodd W (1999) Activation of cortical and cerebellar motor areas during executed and imagined hand movements: an fMRI study. J Cogn Neurosci 11:491–501 PubMed Lotze M, Montoya P, Erb M, Hulsmann E, Flor H, Klose U, Birbaumer N, Grodd W (1999) Activation of cortical and cerebellar motor areas during executed and imagined hand movements: an fMRI study. J Cogn Neurosci 11:491–501 PubMed
90.
Zurück zum Zitat Maat B, Smit G, Plettenburg D, Breedveld P (2018) Passive prosthetic hands and tools: a literature review. Prosthet Orthot Int 42:66–74 PubMed Maat B, Smit G, Plettenburg D, Breedveld P (2018) Passive prosthetic hands and tools: a literature review. Prosthet Orthot Int 42:66–74 PubMed
91.
Zurück zum Zitat MacIver K, Lloyd DM, Kelly S, Roberts N, Nurmikko T (2008) Phantom limb pain, cortical reorganization and the therapeutic effect of mental imagery. Brain 131(8):2181–2191 PubMedPubMedCentral MacIver K, Lloyd DM, Kelly S, Roberts N, Nurmikko T (2008) Phantom limb pain, cortical reorganization and the therapeutic effect of mental imagery. Brain 131(8):2181–2191 PubMedPubMedCentral
92.
Zurück zum Zitat Maier C, Dertwinkel R, Mansourian N, Hosbach I, Schwenkreis P, Senne I, Skipka G, Zenz M, Tegenthoff M (2003) Efficacy of the NMDA-receptor antagonist memantine in patients with chronic phantom limb pain—results of a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 103:277–283 PubMed Maier C, Dertwinkel R, Mansourian N, Hosbach I, Schwenkreis P, Senne I, Skipka G, Zenz M, Tegenthoff M (2003) Efficacy of the NMDA-receptor antagonist memantine in patients with chronic phantom limb pain—results of a randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 103:277–283 PubMed
93.
94.
Zurück zum Zitat Makin TR, Scholz J, Filippini N, Henderson Slater D, Tracey I, Johansen-Berg H (2013) Phantom pain is associated with preserved structure and function in the former hand area. Nat Commun 4:1570 PubMed Makin TR, Scholz J, Filippini N, Henderson Slater D, Tracey I, Johansen-Berg H (2013) Phantom pain is associated with preserved structure and function in the former hand area. Nat Commun 4:1570 PubMed
95.
Zurück zum Zitat Malawer MM, Buch R, Khurana JS, Garvey T, Rice L (1991) Postoperative infusional continuous regional analgesia: a technique for relief of postoperative pain following major extremity surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res 266:227–237 Malawer MM, Buch R, Khurana JS, Garvey T, Rice L (1991) Postoperative infusional continuous regional analgesia: a technique for relief of postoperative pain following major extremity surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res 266:227–237
96.
Zurück zum Zitat Markovic M, Karnal H, Graimann B, Farina D, Dosen S (2017) GLIMPSE: google Glass interface for sensory feedback in myoelectric hand prostheses. J Neural Eng 14:36007 PubMed Markovic M, Karnal H, Graimann B, Farina D, Dosen S (2017) GLIMPSE: google Glass interface for sensory feedback in myoelectric hand prostheses. J Neural Eng 14:36007 PubMed
97.
Zurück zum Zitat Mercier C, Reilly KT, Vargas CD, Aballea A, Sirigu A (2006) Mapping phantom movement representations in the motor cortex of amputees. Brain 129(8):2202–2210 PubMed Mercier C, Reilly KT, Vargas CD, Aballea A, Sirigu A (2006) Mapping phantom movement representations in the motor cortex of amputees. Brain 129(8):2202–2210 PubMed
98.
Zurück zum Zitat Miller LA, Stubblefield KA, Lipschutz RD, Lock BA, Kuiken TA (2008) Improved myoelectric prosthesis control using targeted reinnervation surgery: a case series. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 16:46–50 PubMedPubMedCentral Miller LA, Stubblefield KA, Lipschutz RD, Lock BA, Kuiken TA (2008) Improved myoelectric prosthesis control using targeted reinnervation surgery: a case series. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 16:46–50 PubMedPubMedCentral
99.
Zurück zum Zitat Moseley GL, Flor H (2012) Targeting cortical representations in the treatment of chronic pain: a review. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 26:646–652 PubMed Moseley GL, Flor H (2012) Targeting cortical representations in the treatment of chronic pain: a review. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 26:646–652 PubMed
100.
Zurück zum Zitat Moseley GL, Gallace A, Spence C (2008) Is mirror therapy all it is cracked up to be? Current evidence and future directions. Pain 138:7–10 PubMed Moseley GL, Gallace A, Spence C (2008) Is mirror therapy all it is cracked up to be? Current evidence and future directions. Pain 138:7–10 PubMed
101.
Zurück zum Zitat Moseley GL, Zalucki NM, Wiech K (2008) Tactile discrimination, but not tactile stimulation alone, reduces chronic limb pain. Pain 137:600–608 PubMed Moseley GL, Zalucki NM, Wiech K (2008) Tactile discrimination, but not tactile stimulation alone, reduces chronic limb pain. Pain 137:600–608 PubMed
102.
Zurück zum Zitat Moura VL, Faurot KR, Gaylord SA, Mann JD, Sill M, Lynch C, Lee MY (2012) Mind-body interventions for treatment of phantom limb pain in persons with amputation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 91:701–714 PubMedPubMedCentral Moura VL, Faurot KR, Gaylord SA, Mann JD, Sill M, Lynch C, Lee MY (2012) Mind-body interventions for treatment of phantom limb pain in persons with amputation. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 91:701–714 PubMedPubMedCentral
103.
Zurück zum Zitat Murray CD, Patchick E, Pettifer S, Caillette F, Howard T (2006) Immersive virtual reality as a rehabilitative technology for phantom limb experience: a protocol. Cyberpsychol Behav 9:167–170 PubMed Murray CD, Patchick E, Pettifer S, Caillette F, Howard T (2006) Immersive virtual reality as a rehabilitative technology for phantom limb experience: a protocol. Cyberpsychol Behav 9:167–170 PubMed
104.
Zurück zum Zitat Murray CD, Patchick EL, Caillette F, Howard T, Pettifer S (2006) Can immersive virtual reality reduce phantom limb pain? Stud Health Technol Inform 119:407–412 PubMed Murray CD, Patchick EL, Caillette F, Howard T, Pettifer S (2006) Can immersive virtual reality reduce phantom limb pain? Stud Health Technol Inform 119:407–412 PubMed
105.
Zurück zum Zitat Murray CD, Pettifer S, Howard T, Patchick EL, Caillette F, Kulkarni J, Bamford C (2007) The treatment of phantom limb pain using immersive virtual reality: three case studies. Disabil Rehabil 29:1465–1469 PubMed Murray CD, Pettifer S, Howard T, Patchick EL, Caillette F, Kulkarni J, Bamford C (2007) The treatment of phantom limb pain using immersive virtual reality: three case studies. Disabil Rehabil 29:1465–1469 PubMed
106.
Zurück zum Zitat Nardone R, Versace V, Sebastianelli L, Brigo F, Christova M, Scarano GI, Saltuari L, Trinka E, Hauer L, Sellner J (2019) Transcranial magnetic stimulation in subjects with phantom pain and non-painful phantom sensations: a systematic review. Brain Res Bull 148:1–9 PubMed Nardone R, Versace V, Sebastianelli L, Brigo F, Christova M, Scarano GI, Saltuari L, Trinka E, Hauer L, Sellner J (2019) Transcranial magnetic stimulation in subjects with phantom pain and non-painful phantom sensations: a systematic review. Brain Res Bull 148:1–9 PubMed
107.
Zurück zum Zitat Nikolajsen L (2013) Phantom limb. In: McMahon S, Koltzenburg M, Tracey I, Turk DC (Hrsg) Wall and Melzack’s textbook of pain, Bd. 6. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, S 915–925 Nikolajsen L (2013) Phantom limb. In: McMahon S, Koltzenburg M, Tracey I, Turk DC (Hrsg) Wall and Melzack’s textbook of pain, Bd. 6. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, S 915–925
108.
Zurück zum Zitat Nikolajsen L, Hansen CL, Nielsen J, Keller J, Arendt-Nielsen L, Jensen TS (1996) The effect of ketamine on phantom pain: a central neuropathic disorder maintained by peripheral input. Pain 67:69–77 PubMed Nikolajsen L, Hansen CL, Nielsen J, Keller J, Arendt-Nielsen L, Jensen TS (1996) The effect of ketamine on phantom pain: a central neuropathic disorder maintained by peripheral input. Pain 67:69–77 PubMed
109.
Zurück zum Zitat Nikolajsen L, Ilkjaer S, Christensen JH, Kroner K, Jensen TS (1997) Randomised trial of epidural bupivacaine and morphine in prevention of stump and phantom pain in lower-limb amputation. Lancet 350:1353–1357 PubMed Nikolajsen L, Ilkjaer S, Christensen JH, Kroner K, Jensen TS (1997) Randomised trial of epidural bupivacaine and morphine in prevention of stump and phantom pain in lower-limb amputation. Lancet 350:1353–1357 PubMed
110.
Zurück zum Zitat Nikolajsen L, Ilkjaer S, Jensen TS (2000) Relationship between mechanical sensitivity and postamputation pain: a prospective study. Eur J Pain 4:327–334 PubMed Nikolajsen L, Ilkjaer S, Jensen TS (2000) Relationship between mechanical sensitivity and postamputation pain: a prospective study. Eur J Pain 4:327–334 PubMed
111.
Zurück zum Zitat Nikolajsen L, Ilkjaer S, Kroner K, Christensen JH, Jensen TS (1997) The influence of preamputation pain on postamputation stump and phantom pain. Pain 72:393–405 PubMed Nikolajsen L, Ilkjaer S, Kroner K, Christensen JH, Jensen TS (1997) The influence of preamputation pain on postamputation stump and phantom pain. Pain 72:393–405 PubMed
112.
Zurück zum Zitat Oliveira KMC, Pindur L, Han Z, Bhavsar MB, Barker JH, Leppik L (2018) Time course of traumatic neuroma development. PLoS ONE 13:e200548 PubMedPubMedCentral Oliveira KMC, Pindur L, Han Z, Bhavsar MB, Barker JH, Leppik L (2018) Time course of traumatic neuroma development. PLoS ONE 13:e200548 PubMedPubMedCentral
113.
Zurück zum Zitat Ostlie K, Lesjo IM, Franklin RJ, Garfelt B, Skjeldal OH, Magnus P (2012) Prosthesis rejection in acquired major upper-limb amputees: a population-based survey. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 7:294–303 PubMed Ostlie K, Lesjo IM, Franklin RJ, Garfelt B, Skjeldal OH, Magnus P (2012) Prosthesis rejection in acquired major upper-limb amputees: a population-based survey. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 7:294–303 PubMed
114.
Zurück zum Zitat Parkes CM (1973) Factors determining the persistence of phantom pain in the amputee. J Psychosom Res 17:97–108 PubMed Parkes CM (1973) Factors determining the persistence of phantom pain in the amputee. J Psychosom Res 17:97–108 PubMed
115.
Zurück zum Zitat Petersen BA, Nanivadekar AC, Chandrasekaran S, Fisher LE (2019) Phantom limb pain: peripheral neuromodulatory and neuroprosthetic approaches to treatment. Muscle Nerve 59:154–167 PubMed Petersen BA, Nanivadekar AC, Chandrasekaran S, Fisher LE (2019) Phantom limb pain: peripheral neuromodulatory and neuroprosthetic approaches to treatment. Muscle Nerve 59:154–167 PubMed
116.
Zurück zum Zitat Petrini FM, Bumbasirevic M, Valle G, Ilic V, Mijovic P, Cvancara P, Barberi F, Katic N, Bortolotti D, Andreu D, Lechler K, Lesic A, Mazic S, Mijovic B, Guiraud D, Stieglitz T, Alexandersson A, Micera S, Raspopovic S (2019) Sensory feedback restoration in leg amputees improves walking speed, metabolic cost and phantom pain. Nat Med 25:1356–1363 PubMed Petrini FM, Bumbasirevic M, Valle G, Ilic V, Mijovic P, Cvancara P, Barberi F, Katic N, Bortolotti D, Andreu D, Lechler K, Lesic A, Mazic S, Mijovic B, Guiraud D, Stieglitz T, Alexandersson A, Micera S, Raspopovic S (2019) Sensory feedback restoration in leg amputees improves walking speed, metabolic cost and phantom pain. Nat Med 25:1356–1363 PubMed
117.
Zurück zum Zitat Pezzin LE, Dillingham TR, Mackenzie EJ, Ephraim P, Rossbach P (2004) Use and satisfaction with prosthetic limb devices and related services. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:723–729 PubMed Pezzin LE, Dillingham TR, Mackenzie EJ, Ephraim P, Rossbach P (2004) Use and satisfaction with prosthetic limb devices and related services. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:723–729 PubMed
118.
Zurück zum Zitat Pinzur MS, Garla PG, Pluth T, Vrbos L (1996) Continuous postoperative infusion of a regional anesthetic after an amputation of the lower extremity: a randomized clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am 78:1501–1505 PubMed Pinzur MS, Garla PG, Pluth T, Vrbos L (1996) Continuous postoperative infusion of a regional anesthetic after an amputation of the lower extremity: a randomized clinical trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am 78:1501–1505 PubMed
119.
Zurück zum Zitat Pirowska A, Wloch T, Nowobilski R, Plaszewski M, Hocini A, Menager D (2014) Phantom phenomena and body scheme after limb amputation: a literature review. Neurol Neurochir Pol 48:52–59 PubMed Pirowska A, Wloch T, Nowobilski R, Plaszewski M, Hocini A, Menager D (2014) Phantom phenomena and body scheme after limb amputation: a literature review. Neurol Neurochir Pol 48:52–59 PubMed
120.
Zurück zum Zitat Plato H von, Kontinen V, Hamunen K (2018) Efficacy and safety of epidural, continuous perineural infusion and adjuvant analgesics for acute postoperative pain after major limb amputation—a systematic review. Scand J Pain 18:3–17 Plato H von, Kontinen V, Hamunen K (2018) Efficacy and safety of epidural, continuous perineural infusion and adjuvant analgesics for acute postoperative pain after major limb amputation—a systematic review. Scand J Pain 18:3–17
121.
Zurück zum Zitat Preissler S, Thielemann D, Dietrich C, Hofmann GO, Miltner WHR, Weiss T (2017) Preliminary evidence for training-induced changes of morphology and phantom limb pain. Front Hum Neurosci 11:319 PubMedPubMedCentral Preissler S, Thielemann D, Dietrich C, Hofmann GO, Miltner WHR, Weiss T (2017) Preliminary evidence for training-induced changes of morphology and phantom limb pain. Front Hum Neurosci 11:319 PubMedPubMedCentral
122.
Zurück zum Zitat Ramachandran VS, Rogers-Ramachandran D, Cobb S (1995) Touching the phantom limb. Nature 377:489–490 PubMed Ramachandran VS, Rogers-Ramachandran D, Cobb S (1995) Touching the phantom limb. Nature 377:489–490 PubMed
123.
Zurück zum Zitat Rasmussen ML (2010) The eye amputated—consequences of eye amputation with emphasis on clinical aspects, phantom eye syndrome and quality of life. Acta Ophthalmol 88:1–26 PubMed Rasmussen ML (2010) The eye amputated—consequences of eye amputation with emphasis on clinical aspects, phantom eye syndrome and quality of life. Acta Ophthalmol 88:1–26 PubMed
124.
Zurück zum Zitat Ribbers G, Mulder T, Rijken R (1989) The phantom phenomenon: a critical review. Int J Rehabil Res 12:175–186 PubMed Ribbers G, Mulder T, Rijken R (1989) The phantom phenomenon: a critical review. Int J Rehabil Res 12:175–186 PubMed
125.
Zurück zum Zitat Richardson C, Glenn S, Horgan M, Nurmikko T (2007) A prospective study of factors associated with the presence of phantom limb pain six months after major lower limb amputation in patients with peripheral vascular disease. J Pain 8:793–801 PubMed Richardson C, Glenn S, Horgan M, Nurmikko T (2007) A prospective study of factors associated with the presence of phantom limb pain six months after major lower limb amputation in patients with peripheral vascular disease. J Pain 8:793–801 PubMed
126.
Zurück zum Zitat Richardson C, Kulkarni J (2017) A review of the management of phantom limb pain: challenges and solutions. J Pain Res 10:1861–1870 PubMedPubMedCentral Richardson C, Kulkarni J (2017) A review of the management of phantom limb pain: challenges and solutions. J Pain Res 10:1861–1870 PubMedPubMedCentral
127.
Zurück zum Zitat Robinson LR, Czerniecki JM, Ehde DM, Edwards WT, Judish DA, Goldberg ML, Campbell KM, Smith DG, Jensen MP (2004) Trial of amitriptyline for relief of pain in amputees: results of a randomized controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:1–6 PubMed Robinson LR, Czerniecki JM, Ehde DM, Edwards WT, Judish DA, Goldberg ML, Campbell KM, Smith DG, Jensen MP (2004) Trial of amitriptyline for relief of pain in amputees: results of a randomized controlled study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:1–6 PubMed
128.
Zurück zum Zitat Rock I, Victor J (1964) Vision and touch: an experimentally created conflict between the two senses. Science 143:594–596 PubMed Rock I, Victor J (1964) Vision and touch: an experimentally created conflict between the two senses. Science 143:594–596 PubMed
129.
Zurück zum Zitat Rognini G, Petrini FM, Raspopovic S, Valle G, Granata G, Strauss I, Solca M, Bello-Ruiz J, Herbelin B, Mange R, D’Anna E, Di Iorio R, Di Pino G, Andreu D, Guiraud D, Stieglitz T, Rossini PM, Serino A, Micera S, Blanke O (2019) Multisensory bionic limb to achieve prosthesis embodiment and reduce distorted phantom limb perceptions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 90:833–836 PubMed Rognini G, Petrini FM, Raspopovic S, Valle G, Granata G, Strauss I, Solca M, Bello-Ruiz J, Herbelin B, Mange R, D’Anna E, Di Iorio R, Di Pino G, Andreu D, Guiraud D, Stieglitz T, Rossini PM, Serino A, Micera S, Blanke O (2019) Multisensory bionic limb to achieve prosthesis embodiment and reduce distorted phantom limb perceptions. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 90:833–836 PubMed
130.
Zurück zum Zitat Roos C de, Veenstra AC, Jongh A de, Hollander-Gijsman M den, Wee NJ van der, Zitman FG, Rood YR van (2010) Treatment of chronic phantom limb pain using a trauma-focused psychological approach. Pain Res Manag 15:65–71 PubMedPubMedCentral Roos C de, Veenstra AC, Jongh A de, Hollander-Gijsman M den, Wee NJ van der, Zitman FG, Rood YR van (2010) Treatment of chronic phantom limb pain using a trauma-focused psychological approach. Pain Res Manag 15:65–71 PubMedPubMedCentral
131.
Zurück zum Zitat Rostaminejad A, Behnammoghadam M, Rostaminejad M, Behnammoghadam Z, Bashti S (2017) Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the phantom limb pain of patients with amputations within a 24-month follow-up. Int J Rehabil Res 40:209–214 PubMed Rostaminejad A, Behnammoghadam M, Rostaminejad M, Behnammoghadam Z, Bashti S (2017) Efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on the phantom limb pain of patients with amputations within a 24-month follow-up. Int J Rehabil Res 40:209–214 PubMed
132.
Zurück zum Zitat Roux FE, Ibarrola D, Lazorthes Y, Berry I (2001) Virtual movements activate primary sensorimotor areas in amputees: report of three cases. Neurosurgery 49:736–741 (discussion 741–742) PubMed Roux FE, Ibarrola D, Lazorthes Y, Berry I (2001) Virtual movements activate primary sensorimotor areas in amputees: report of three cases. Neurosurgery 49:736–741 (discussion 741–742) PubMed
133.
Zurück zum Zitat Schans CP van der, Geertzen JH, Schoppen T, Dijkstra PU (2002) Phantom pain and health-related quality of life in lower limb amputees. J Pain Symptom Manage 24:429–436 PubMed Schans CP van der, Geertzen JH, Schoppen T, Dijkstra PU (2002) Phantom pain and health-related quality of life in lower limb amputees. J Pain Symptom Manage 24:429–436 PubMed
134.
Zurück zum Zitat Schley MT, Wilms P, Toepfner S, Schaller HP, Schmelz M, Konrad CJ, Birbaumer N (2008) Painful and nonpainful phantom and stump sensations in acute traumatic amputees. J Trauma 65:858–864 PubMed Schley MT, Wilms P, Toepfner S, Schaller HP, Schmelz M, Konrad CJ, Birbaumer N (2008) Painful and nonpainful phantom and stump sensations in acute traumatic amputees. J Trauma 65:858–864 PubMed
135.
Zurück zum Zitat Schweisfurth MA, Markovic M, Dosen S, Teich F, Graimann B, Farina D (2016) Electrotactile EMG feedback improves the control of prosthesis grasping force. J Neural Eng 13:56010 PubMed Schweisfurth MA, Markovic M, Dosen S, Teich F, Graimann B, Farina D (2016) Electrotactile EMG feedback improves the control of prosthesis grasping force. J Neural Eng 13:56010 PubMed
136.
Zurück zum Zitat Schwenkreis P, Maier C, Pleger B, Mansourian N, Dertwinkel R, Malin JP, Tegenthoff M, Zenz M (2003) NMDA-mediated mechanisms in cortical excitability changes after limb amputation. Acta Neurol Scand 108:179–184 PubMed Schwenkreis P, Maier C, Pleger B, Mansourian N, Dertwinkel R, Malin JP, Tegenthoff M, Zenz M (2003) NMDA-mediated mechanisms in cortical excitability changes after limb amputation. Acta Neurol Scand 108:179–184 PubMed
137.
Zurück zum Zitat Sherman RA, Sherman CJ, Bruno GM (1987) Psychological factors influencing chronic phantom limb pain: an analysis of the literature. Pain 28:285–295 PubMed Sherman RA, Sherman CJ, Bruno GM (1987) Psychological factors influencing chronic phantom limb pain: an analysis of the literature. Pain 28:285–295 PubMed
138.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith DG, Ehde DM, Hanley MA, Campbell KM, Jensen MP, Hoffman AJ, Awan AB, Czerniecki JM, Robinson LR (2005) Efficacy of gabapentin in treating chronic phantom limb and residual limb pain. J Rehabil Res Dev 42:645–654 PubMed Smith DG, Ehde DM, Hanley MA, Campbell KM, Jensen MP, Hoffman AJ, Awan AB, Czerniecki JM, Robinson LR (2005) Efficacy of gabapentin in treating chronic phantom limb and residual limb pain. J Rehabil Res Dev 42:645–654 PubMed
139.
Zurück zum Zitat Trojan J, Diers M, Fuchs X, Bach F, Bekrater-Bodmann R, Foell J, Kamping S, Rance M, Maass H, Flor H (2014) An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach. Behav Res Methods 46:634–640 PubMed Trojan J, Diers M, Fuchs X, Bach F, Bekrater-Bodmann R, Foell J, Kamping S, Rance M, Maass H, Flor H (2014) An augmented reality home-training system based on the mirror training and imagery approach. Behav Res Methods 46:634–640 PubMed
140.
Zurück zum Zitat Uhl C, Betz T, Rupp A, Steinbauer M, Topel I (2015) The influence of continuous local wound infusion on postoperative pain in patients undergoing transfemoral amputation. Vasa 44:381–386 PubMed Uhl C, Betz T, Rupp A, Steinbauer M, Topel I (2015) The influence of continuous local wound infusion on postoperative pain in patients undergoing transfemoral amputation. Vasa 44:381–386 PubMed
141.
Zurück zum Zitat Vadivelu N, Schreck M, Lopez J, Kodumudi G, Narayan D (2008) Pain after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. Am Surg 74:285–296 PubMed Vadivelu N, Schreck M, Lopez J, Kodumudi G, Narayan D (2008) Pain after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. Am Surg 74:285–296 PubMed
142.
Zurück zum Zitat Valerio IL, Dumanian GA, Jordan SW, Mioton LM, Bowen JB, West JM, Porter K, Ko JH, Souza JM, Potter BK (2019) Preemptive treatment of phantom and residual limb pain with targeted muscle reinnervation at the time of major limb amputation. J Am Coll Surg 228:217–226 PubMed Valerio IL, Dumanian GA, Jordan SW, Mioton LM, Bowen JB, West JM, Porter K, Ko JH, Souza JM, Potter BK (2019) Preemptive treatment of phantom and residual limb pain with targeted muscle reinnervation at the time of major limb amputation. J Am Coll Surg 228:217–226 PubMed
143.
Zurück zum Zitat Wakolbinger R, Diers M, Hruby LA, Sturma A, Aszmann OC (2018) Home-based tactile discrimination training reduces phantom limb pain. Pain Pract 18:709–715 PubMed Wakolbinger R, Diers M, Hruby LA, Sturma A, Aszmann OC (2018) Home-based tactile discrimination training reduces phantom limb pain. Pain Pract 18:709–715 PubMed
144.
Zurück zum Zitat Weiss T, Miltner WH, Adler T, Bruckner L, Taub E (1999) Decrease in phantom limb pain associated with prosthesis-induced increased use of an amputation stump in humans. Neurosci Lett 272:131–134 PubMed Weiss T, Miltner WH, Adler T, Bruckner L, Taub E (1999) Decrease in phantom limb pain associated with prosthesis-induced increased use of an amputation stump in humans. Neurosci Lett 272:131–134 PubMed
145.
Zurück zum Zitat Wheaton LA (2017) Neurorehabilitation in upper limb amputation: understanding how neurophysiological changes can affect functional rehabilitation. J Neuroeng Rehabil 14:41 PubMedPubMedCentral Wheaton LA (2017) Neurorehabilitation in upper limb amputation: understanding how neurophysiological changes can affect functional rehabilitation. J Neuroeng Rehabil 14:41 PubMedPubMedCentral
146.
Zurück zum Zitat Wiech K, Kiefer RT, Topfner S, Preissl H, Braun C, Unertl K, Flor H, Birbaumer N (2004) A placebo-controlled randomized crossover trial of the N‑methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist, memantine, in patients with chronic phantom limb pain. Anesth Analg 98:408–413 PubMed Wiech K, Kiefer RT, Topfner S, Preissl H, Braun C, Unertl K, Flor H, Birbaumer N (2004) A placebo-controlled randomized crossover trial of the N‑methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist, memantine, in patients with chronic phantom limb pain. Anesth Analg 98:408–413 PubMed
147.
Zurück zum Zitat Wilson JA, Nimmo AF, Fleetwood-Walker SM, Colvin LA (2008) A randomised double blind trial of the effect of pre-emptive epidural ketamine on persistent pain after lower limb amputation. Pain 135:108–118 PubMed Wilson JA, Nimmo AF, Fleetwood-Walker SM, Colvin LA (2008) A randomised double blind trial of the effect of pre-emptive epidural ketamine on persistent pain after lower limb amputation. Pain 135:108–118 PubMed
148.
Zurück zum Zitat Wu CL, Tella P, Staats PS, Vaslav R, Kazim DA, Wesselmann U, Raja SN (2002) Analgesic effects of intravenous lidocaine and morphine on postamputation pain: a randomized double-blind, active placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Anesthesiology 96:841–848 PubMed Wu CL, Tella P, Staats PS, Vaslav R, Kazim DA, Wesselmann U, Raja SN (2002) Analgesic effects of intravenous lidocaine and morphine on postamputation pain: a randomized double-blind, active placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Anesthesiology 96:841–848 PubMed
149.
Zurück zum Zitat Wu H, Sultana R, Taylor KB, Szabo A (2012) A prospective randomized double-blinded pilot study to examine the effect of botulinum toxin type A injection versus lidocaine/depomedrol injection on residual and phantom limb pain: initial report. Clin J Pain 28:108–112 PubMed Wu H, Sultana R, Taylor KB, Szabo A (2012) A prospective randomized double-blinded pilot study to examine the effect of botulinum toxin type A injection versus lidocaine/depomedrol injection on residual and phantom limb pain: initial report. Clin J Pain 28:108–112 PubMed
150.
Zurück zum Zitat Yousef AA, Aborahma AM (2017) The preventive value of epidural calcitonin in patients with lower limb amputation. Pain Med 18:1745–1751 PubMed Yousef AA, Aborahma AM (2017) The preventive value of epidural calcitonin in patients with lower limb amputation. Pain Med 18:1745–1751 PubMed
Metadaten
Titel
Klinisches Update zu Phantomschmerz
Deutsche Fassung
verfasst von
PD Dr. Joachim Erlenwein
Martin Diers
Jennifer Ernst
Friederike Schulz
Frank Petzke
Publikationsdatum
21.03.2022
Verlag
Springer Medizin
Erschienen in
Der Schmerz
Print ISSN: 0932-433X
Elektronische ISSN: 1432-2129
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00482-022-00629-x

Passend zum Thema

ANZEIGE

Erfolgreiche Opioidrotation von Hydromorphon zu Oxycodon OD

Der Fall zeigt, wie ein komplexes chronisches Schmerzsyndrom nach multiplen operativen Eingriffen (u.a. TEP), begleitet von starker Depression und Schlafstörungen, durch eine Therapieoptimierung zu einer deutlichen Verbesserung der Schmerzsymptomatik und der Lebensqualität führen kann.

ANZEIGE

Kasuistik - Chronische Schmerzstörung nach Gürtelrose im Gesicht

Eine Schmerztherapie bei Herpes Zoster sollte wegen des Chronifizierungsrisikos nicht zu zögerlich angesetzt werden. Dieser Fall zeigt, wie starke neuropathische Schmerzen wirksam und Compliance-fördernd mit Oxycodon-Präparaten behandelt werden können, die über 24 Stunden retardiert sind.

ANZEIGE

Schmerztherapie erleichtern - Auf 1x im Leben

Wie Sie bei starken chronischen Schmerzen die Therapie Ihrer Patienten mit Hilfe von ultraretardierten oralen Opioiden praxisrelevant optimieren und die Compliance sowie Lebensqualität Ihrer Patienten effektiv verbessern können, das erfahren Sie anschaulich in den folgenden Beiträgen.