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01.12.2018 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Cardiovascular Diabetology 1/2018

Have dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors ameliorated the vascular complications of type 2 diabetes in large-scale trials? The potential confounding effect of stem-cell chemokines

Zeitschrift:
Cardiovascular Diabetology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autor:
Milton Packer

Abstract

Drugs that inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) are conventionally regarded as incretin-based agents that signal through the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor. However, inhibition of DPP-4 also potentiates the stem cell chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), which can promote inflammation, proliferative responses and neovascularization. In large-scale cardiovascular outcome trials, enhanced GLP-1 signaling has reduced the risk of atherosclerotic ischemic events, potentially because GLP-1 retards the growth and increases the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. However, DPP-4 inhibitors have not reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, possibly because potentiation of SDF-1 enhances plaque growth and instability, activates deleterious neurohormonal mechanisms, and promotes cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. Similarly, trials with GLP-1 agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have reported favorable effects on renal function, even after only 3–4 years of treatment. In contrast, no benefits on the rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate have been seen in trials of DPP-4 inhibitors, perhaps because the renal actions of DPP-4 inhibitors are primarily mediated by potentiation of SDF-1, not GLP-1. Experimentally, SDF-1 can promote podocyte injury and glomerulosclerosis. Furthermore, the natriuretic action of SDF-1 occurs primarily in the distal tubules, where it cannot utilize tubuloglomerular feedback to modulate the deleterious effects of glomerular hyperfiltration. Potentiation of SDF-1 in experimental models may also exacerbate both retinopathy and neuropathy. Therefore, although DPP-4 inhibitors have attractive clinical features, the benefits that might be expected from GLP-1 signaling may be undermined by their actions to enhance SDF-1.
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