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13.09.2017 | Original Research | Ausgabe 5/2017 Open Access

Diabetes Therapy 5/2017

Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs Associated with Ketosis Events in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in the UK

Zeitschrift:
Diabetes Therapy > Ausgabe 5/2017
Autoren:
Nandu Thalange, Natalie Valerie Jane Aldhouse, Helen Kitchen, Daniel Howard, Deniz Tutkunkardas, Jonas Håkan-Bloch
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s13300-017-0305-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Enhanced content

Abstract

Introduction

Ketosis is a metabolic state associated with insulin deficiency. Untreated, it develops into diabetic ketoacidosis, a significant contributor to mortality and morbidity in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Little is understood about how patients utilize healthcare resources during ketosis events. This study aimed to identify and quantify healthcare resource utilization and provide estimates of associated costs of ketosis events in T1DM, treated unaided or with healthcare professional (HCP) assistance in the UK.

Methods

Qualitative interviews with adult patients, pediatric carers, and HCPs identified resources used by patients/carers during ketosis events. An online quantitative survey was then used to quantify patients/carers resource use during their/their child’s most recent ketosis event, and HCPs estimated patient resource uptake to corroborate the findings. Associated costs estimated from UK data sources were applied to the survey results to calculate the cost of ketosis events in adults and children.

Results

Quantitative survey responses from 93 adults, 76 carers, and 52 HCPs were analyzed. Patients and carers monitored ketosis during and following the event with ketone strips and additional glucose strips, and administered treatment comprising insulin and pump set changes where appropriate. Additionally, patients/carers accessed phone services and many received follow-up medical appointments. In total, 70% (n = 65) of adult and 66% (n = 50) of pediatric ketosis events were managed at home, for which resource use costs per event were £23.87 and £38.00 respectively. Remaining events were treated in NHS facilities costing £217.57 per adult and £352.92 per child. Weighted averages identified that ketosis events cost £81.98 per adult and £142.97 per child. Indirect costs from work productivity loss increase these figures to £225.11 per adult and £256.88 per child.

Conclusions

Healthcare resource use for ketosis events is high in adults and children with T1DM and imposes an underappreciated economic burden for the NHS.

Funding

Novo Nordisk A/S.
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