Sepsis is a complex, multifactorial syndrome characterized by a dysregulated host response to infection, leading to severe organ dysfunction and high mortality rates among critically ill patients. Hypovitaminosis C and vitamin C deficiency are frequently observed in septic patients, prompting interest in the potential therapeutic role of ascorbic acid. Although intravenous administration of ascorbic acid has been investigated in multiple clinical trials for sepsis treatment, the specific immunomodulatory mechanisms underlying its effects remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of high-dose ascorbic acid on experimental sepsis. Results show that intravenous administration of high-dose ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg) attenuated sepsis-induced organ dysfunctions in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic mouse model. Ascorbic acid improved splenic cell apoptosis and increased the number of CD3+ T cells in septic mice induced by CLP. Furthermore, ascorbic acid downregulated PD-L1 expression in livers, reduced PD-1 expression in spleens, and inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT1 at Y701 in multiple organs of CLP-induced septic mice. The in vitro experiments also revealed that 800 μM ascorbic acid suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation and inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFN-γ-induced PD-L1 expression in macrophages. These findings suggest that ascorbic acid prevents sepsis-associated organ dysfunction through the p-STAT1/PD-L1 signaling pathway. Our study provides new insights into the potential therapeutic use of ascorbic acid in sepsis.