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01.12.2017 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

BMC Infectious Diseases 1/2017

HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

Zeitschrift:
BMC Infectious Diseases > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
Malene Hove-Skovsgaard, Julie Christine Gaardbo, Lilian Kolte, Kamilla Winding, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Asbjørn Svardal, Rolf Kristian Berge, Jan Gerstoft, Henrik Ullum, Marius Trøseid, Susanne Dam Nielsen
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12879-017-2334-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background

Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may contribute to elevated risk of CVD.

Methods

Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA <200 copies/mL (n = 25 with T2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28 without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex.
High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent, pro-atherogenic marker was measured using stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS.

Results

The percentage of HIV + T2D+, HIV + T2D-, HIV-T2D+, and HIV-T2D- with hsCRP above cut-off was 50%, 19%, 47%, and 11%, respectively. HIV + T2D+ had elevated ADMA (0.67 μM (0.63-0.72) compared to HIV + T2D- (0.60 μM (0.57-0.64) p = 0.017), HIV-T2D+ (0.57 μM (0.51-63) p = 0.008), and HIV-T2D- (0.55 μM (0.52-0.58) p < 0.001). No differences in TMAO between groups were found. However, a positive correlation between ADMA and TMAO was found in the total population (rs = 0.32, p = 0.001), which was mainly driven by a close correlation in HIV + T2D+ (rs = 0.63, p = 0.001).

Conclusion

Elevated inflammation and evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV-infected persons with T2D. The effect on inflammation was mainly driven by T2D, while both HIV infection and T2D may contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Whether gut microbiota is a contributing factor to this remains to be determined.
Zusatzmaterial
Additional file 1: Table S3. HIV+T2D+: HIV infected persons with type 2 diabetes, TMAO: Trimethylamine-N-oxide. (PPTX 46 kb)
12879_2017_2334_MOESM1_ESM.pptx
Literatur
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