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10.11.2017 | Original Article | Ausgabe 5/2018

The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India 5/2018

How Adequate are Macro- and Micronutrient Intake in Pregnant Women with Diabetes Mellitus? A Study from South India

Zeitschrift:
The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India > Ausgabe 5/2018
Autoren:
Mini Joseph, Riddhi Das Gupta, Sahana Shetty, Roshna Ramachandran, Geethu Antony, Jiji Mathews, Santhosh Benjamin, Shajith Anoop, Jansi Vimala Rani, Nihal Thomas
Wichtige Hinweise
Mini Joseph is Post doctoral fellow in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism of Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; Riddhi Das Gupta is working Associate Professor in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; Sahana Shetty is working Associate Professor in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; Roshna Ramachandran is working Research Officer in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; Geethu Antony is Post Graduate student in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism of Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore,Tamil Nadu, India; Jiji Mathews is Professor in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore,Tamil Nadu, India; Santhosh Benjamin is Professor in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; Shajith Anoop is the Research Officer in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism of Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; Jansi Vimala Rani is the Diabetes Educator in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabtes and Metabolim of Christain Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; Nihal Thomas is working Professor in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Abstract

Background

Diabetes is the most common condition in pregnancy with a worldwide prevalence of 16.9%.

Aim

To determine the adequacy of the nutrient intake of pregnant women with diabetes mellitus.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional study of 85 pregnant women who met the diagnostic inclusion criteria for diabetes mellitus (gestational and pre-gestational diabetes mellitus) and who were being managed at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Their demography, clinical characteristics (from updated medical records), anthropometric measures (using standard procedures), nutrient intake and meal pattern (obtained using 24 h recall, food frequency and their log diaries) were collected.

Results

The mean age of the group was 29.9 + 4.5 years, 54% were in the second trimester of pregnancy with a mean glycosylated haemoglobin level of 6.3 + 1.4%. The mean BMI indicated that 47% of them were in the obese grade 1 category. Insulin was used in one-third of the population. The overall macronutrient and micronutrient intakes of the population were below the recommended daily allowances for Indians (60–70% of RDA). There was a deficit in the intake of calories, fibre, proteins, iron, calcium, carotene, folic acid, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Between the two groups, the pre-GDM women had a significantly better nutrient intake and this could be attributed to a greater exposure to nutrition counselling that they have received during the earlier part of their diabetes care.

Conclusion

The gestational period should be viewed as a window of opportunity to modify dietary patterns and introduce healthy lifestyle practices for the woman and her family.

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