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We hereby confirm that the article has been read and approved by all co-authors. UB has been part of the improvement team at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital. All other authors declare that they have no competing interest and therefore have nothing to declare.
PM, MB, HA, and JT, were involved in the original conception and design of the article.
MB obtained research funding. PM conducted data collection, and organized all data collected.
PM developed a case description based on data collected through interviews, observations, and document analysis. PM, RH, MB, HA, UB, and JT revised the case description. ME and PM conducted the statistical analysis. PM, RH, HA, UB, and JT contributed to the interpretation of the data presented under the heading "case analysis".
PM drafted the manuscript, and all authors contributed substantially to its revision. All authors have approved the final version of the paper. PM takes responsibility for the paper as a whole.
There is growing interest in applying lean thinking in healthcare, yet, there is still limited knowledge of how and why lean interventions succeed (or fail). To address this gap, this in-depth case study examines a lean-inspired intervention in a Swedish pediatric Accident and Emergency department.
We used a mixed methods explanatory single case study design. Hospital performance data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical process control techniques to assess changes in performance one year before and two years after the intervention. We collected qualitative data through non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and internal documents to describe the process and content of the lean intervention. We then analyzed empirical findings using four theoretical lean principles (Spear and Bowen 1999) to understand how and why the intervention worked in its local context as well as to identify its strengths and weaknesses.
Improvements in waiting and lead times (19-24%) were achieved and sustained in the two years following lean-inspired changes to employee roles, staffing and scheduling, communication and coordination, expertise, workspace layout, and problem solving. These changes resulted in improvement because they: (a) standardized work and reduced ambiguity, (b) connected people who were dependent on one another, (c) enhanced seamless, uninterrupted flow through the process, and (d) empowered staff to investigate problems and to develop countermeasures using a "scientific method". Contextual factors that may explain why not even greater improvement was achieved included: a mismatch between job tasks, licensing constraints, and competence; a perception of being monitored, and discomfort with inter-professional collaboration.
Drawing on Spear and Bowen's theoretical propositions, this study explains how a package of lean-like changes translated into better care process management. It adds new knowledge regarding how lean principles can be beneficially applied in healthcare and identifies changes to professional roles as a potential challenge when introducing lean thinking there. This knowledge may enable health care organizations and managers in other settings to configure their own lean program and to better understand the reasons behind lean's success (or failure).