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01.05.2009 | Ausgabe 5/2009

World Journal of Surgery 5/2009

Human Immunodeficiency Disease: How Should It Affect Surgical Decision Making?

Zeitschrift:
World Journal of Surgery > Ausgabe 5/2009
Autoren:
T. E. Madiba, D. J. J. Muckart, S. R. Thomson

Abstract

Background

The ever-increasing prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the continued improvement in clinical management has increased the likelihood of surgery being performed on patients with this infection. The aim of the review was to assess current literature on the influence of HIV status on surgical decision-making.

Methods

A literature review was performed using MEDLINE articles addressing “human immunodeficiency virus,” “HIV,” “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” “AIDS,” “HIV and surgery.” We also manually searched relevant surgical journals and completed the bibliographic compilation by collecting cross references from published papers.

Results

Results of surgery between noninfected and HIV-infected individuals and between HIV-infected and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients are variable in terms of morbidity, mortality, and hospital stay. The risk of major surgery is not unlike that for other immunocompromised or malnourished patients. The multiple co-morbidities associated with HIV infection and the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy must be considered when assessing and optimizing the patient for surgery. The clinical stage of the patient’s disease should be evaluated with a focus on the overall organ system function. For patients with advanced HIV disease, palliative surgery offers relief of acute problems with improvement in the quality of life. When indicated, diagnostic surgery assists with further decision-making in the medical management of these patients and hence should not be withheld.

Conclusion

HIV infection should not be considered a significant independent factor for major surgical procedures. Appropriate surgery should be offered as in normal surgical patients without fear of an unfavorable outcome.

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