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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
SS designed and implemented the study, synthesized the analysis plan, analyzed the data and led the writing of the article. SB Pant assisted with the conduct of the study and the writing of the article. SD assisted with the conduct of the study and the writing of the article. SB Pokhrel assisted with administrative support, data analysis and writing of the article. LCM design and implemented the study, helped synthesize the analysis plan and assisted with the writing of the article. All authors helped to conceptualize the study, interpret findings and review drafts of the article. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated.
In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator.
Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas.
Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes