08.08.2015 | Original Article
Hyperbilirubinemia as a predictive factor in acute appendicitis
T. Eren, E. Tombalak, I. A. Ozemir, M. Leblebici, S. Ziyade, O. Ekinci, O. Alimoglu
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
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Our aim was to establish the role of hyperbilirubinemia as a predictive parameter for the prediction of either acute, or gangrenous/perforated appendicitis as well as to compare other parameters in a similar role.
Medical files of the patients who underwent appendectomies between September 2013 and September 2014 were evaluated. Age, gender, preoperative white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil count (NEU), neutrophil percentage (NEU%), C-reactive protein (CRP), total/direct/indirect bilirubin levels, and the postoperative histopathological findings were recorded. The Fisher’s exact, Pearson’s χ
2, ANOVA, and Kruskal–Wallis tests while logistic regression for multivariate analysis was performed. p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant.
The study group of 162 patients consisted of 97 (60 %) men and 65 (40 %) women with a median age of 36 (18–90). Histopathological examinations revealed normal appendix in 21 (13 %) patients, non-complicated acute appendicitis in 100 (62 %), and appendiceal gangrene/perforation in 41 (25 %) patients. WBC, NEU, NEU%, and CRP levels were significantly higher in cases of acute and gangrenous/perforated appendicitis (p < 0.01). Total and direct bilirubin levels were also significantly elevated in patients with acute and gangrenous/perforated appendicitis (p < 0.01). According to multivariate analysis, elevated CRP levels were associated with 14 times, elevated total bilirubin levels were associated with five times, and elevated direct bilirubin levels were associated with 36 times greater risk for appendiceal gangrene/perforation (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively).
Hyperbilirubinemia, especially with elevated direct bilirubin levels, may be considered as an important marker for the prediction of appendiceal gangrene/perforation.