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01.12.2018 | Letter | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Critical Care 1/2018

Hyperoxia effects on intensive care unit mortality: a retrospective pragmatic cohort study

Zeitschrift:
Critical Care > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Mathilde Ruggiu, Nadia Aissaoui, Julien Nael, Caroline Haw-Berlemont, Bertrand Herrmann, Jean-Loup Augy, Sofia Ortuno, Damien Vimpère, Jean-Luc Diehl, Clotilde Bailleul, Emmanuel Guerot
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s13054-018-2142-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Abbreviations
ABG
Arterial blood gas
ICU
Intensive care unit
OS
Overall survival
PaO2
Partial arterial pressure in oxygen
SAPS II
Simplified Acute Physiology Score II
Supplementary oxygen is frequent in the management of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) [ 1]. However, some studies have suggested deleterious effects of hyperoxia on these patients [ 24]. This main study objective was to assess the association between hyperoxia, at any time of the ICU stay, and ICU mortality regardless of the cause of patient admission.
Our study was an observational, retrospective, and single-centre study in the Hôpital Européen George Pompidou medical ICU, Paris, France. All patients admitted between November and December 2017 were included regardless of their admission cause and all of their arterial blood gases (ABGs) were analysed. Hyperoxia was defined as a partial arterial pressure in oxygen (PaO 2) superior to 100 mmHg (13.3 kPa). The principal judgement criterion was occurrence of at least one hyperoxia episode during the ICU stay. All statistical tests were two-tailed with a significance threshold of 0.05. Analyses were performed with R v3.2.4. Survival analysis was estimated by Kaplan–Meier methods.
A total of 130 patients, median age 68 (57–79) years and median SAPS II 45 (35–56), were included. The mean reason for ICU admission was respiratory failure (60 patients, 46%) and 83 patients (64%) needed mechanical ventilation. Thirty-five patients (27%) died during their ICU stay.
Eighty patients (62%) presented at least one episode of hyperoxia. Overall survival (OS) was significantly lower in patients who presented at least one episode of hyperoxia during their ICU stay: median OS was 26 days (95% CI 20–NR) versus median not reached, p = 0.0047 (Fig.  1).
In univariate analysis, hyperoxia was a risk factor for mortality: 31 deceased patients presented hyperoxia (89%) versus 49 alive patients (52%), p < 0.001. SAPS II and mechanical ventilation time were also mortality risk factors in univariate analysis (Additional file  1: Table S1). Multivariate analysis showed that hyperoxia was an independent risk factor for ICU mortality: OR = 3.80 (95% CI 1.08–16.01), p = 0.047 (Table  1).
Table 1
Mortality risk factors in the medical ICU, multivariate analysis
Mortality risk factor
Deceased ( n = 35)
Alive ( n = 95)
Odds ratio (95% CI)
p
Age (years)
70 (66–75)
65 (61–69)
 
0.15
SAPS II
64 (56–72)
41 (37–45)
 
< 0.001
Mechanical ventilation time
9 (7–12)
5 (3–7)
 
0.074
At least one PaO 2 > 100 mmHg (13.3 kPa)
31 (89%)
49 (52%)
3.80 (1.08–16.01)
0.047
Data presented as mean (95CI) or n (%)
R 2 = 0.453
CI confidence interval, ICU intensive care unit, PaO 2 partial arterial pressure in oxygen, SAPS II Simplified Acute Physiology Score II
Despite a conservative oxygen policy, 62% of patients presented at least one episode of hyperoxia, which reinforces the statement by Helmerhorst et al. [ 5]. Previous studies had a focus on specific categories of selected patients [ 24]. On the contrary, our study is a pragmatic study in real-life conditions. We included all consecutive patients admitted to the medical ICU without any exclusion criteria, regardless of the admission cause, mechanical ventilation need, or initial severity, and we collected prospectively a large amount of 1.450 ABG. In this study, we demonstrated that hyperoxia at any time of the ICU stay significantly decreases OS and is an independent mortality risk factor.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Data collection and analyses were conducted in accordance with the French national guidelines: under French law, a retrospective study using data from medical charts requires only a declaration to the Commission nationale Informatique et Libertés. The hospital’s computerised database was declared at this commission. There is no requirement for declaration to an ethic committee.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​4.​0/​), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://​creativecommons.​org/​publicdomain/​zero/​1.​0/​) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
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