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Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by copper accumulation. ATP7B gene mutations lead to ATP7B protein dysfunction, which in turn causes Wilson’s disease.
We describe a male case of Wilson’s disease diagnosed at 10 years after routine biochemical test that showed low serum ceruloplasmin levels and Kayser–Fleischer rings in both corneas. Analysis of the ATP7B gene revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the proband, including the reported c.3517G > A mutation and a novel c.532_574del mutation. The c.532_574del mutation covered a 43-bp region in exon 2, and resulted in a frameshift mutation (p.Leu178PhefsX10). By base sequence analysis, two microhomologies (TCTCA) were observed on both deletion breakpoints in the ATP7B gene. Meanwhile, the presence of some sequence motifs associated with DNA breakage near the deletion region promoted DNA strand break.
By comparison, a replication-based mechanism named fork stalling and template switching/ microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (FoSTeS/MMBIR) was used to explain the formation of this novel deletion mutation.