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X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1 (XLP1) is an X-linked recessive genetic disorder with a strong resemblance to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Causative mutations for XLP1 have been identified in SH2D1A, located on chromosome Xq25.
We report a case of an 18-month-old male with a novel nonsense mutation in SH2D1A. The patient presented the typical phenotype of HLH, including splenomegaly and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow. Thus, he was initially diagnosed with HLH based on HLH-2004 guidelines. High-throughput amplicon sequencing was performed to detect mutations in the most commonly reported causative genes of HLH, i.e., PRF1, UNC13D, STX11, STXBP2, SH2D1A, and XIAP. A likely pathogenic nonsense mutation was detected in SH2D1A (NM_002351.4:c.300T>A). The mutation was inherited from the patient’s mother, and an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance was confirmed by a two-generation pedigree analysis based on Sanger sequencing results.
The nonsense mutation in SH2D1A (NM_002351.4:c.300T>A) was reported for the first time in a case of XLP1 and was considered to be likely pathogenic based on the truncation of the mRNA sequence. This finding expands the spectrum of known XLP-related mutations in Chinese patients and indicates the utility of amplicon sequencing for XLP and HLH diagnosis.