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18.10.2017 | MULTIMEDIA REPORT | Ausgabe 2/2017

Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology 2/2017

Identification of valve-related artifact during cardiac mapping

Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology > Ausgabe 2/2017
Krishna Kancharla, Thomas M. Munger, Rick A. Nishimura, Abhishek Deshmukh, Douglas L. Packer, Samuel J. Asirvatham, Suraj Kapa
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s10840-017-0293-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



During cardiac mapping, it is critical to discriminate signals related to cardiac conduction versus those due to mechanical interaction with other cardiac structures such as valves. We sought to define characteristics that could facilitate discrimination of valve artifact from cardiac conduction signals.


Patients with structurally normal heart undergoing mapping for ventricular arrhythmias arising from the vicinity of the aortic valve between January 2013 and May 2015 were included. Potentials felt to reflect aortic valve opening (occurring at the end of the QRS after the local ventricular signal) were termed A1, and those felt to reflect valve closure were termed A2.


A total of 24 patients had mapping in the sinuses of Valsalva, and 10 (average age 40 + 15, 60% male) were found to have additional signals (A1 and/or A2) notable during mapping. In all patients, intervals between A1 and A2 shortened after ectopic beats and lengthened after compensatory pauses. These variations in the interval matched the change in systolic duration on Doppler echocardiography. Overdrive atrial pacing was performed in four patients, which demonstrated progressive shortening of intervals between A1 and A2. Pacing always revealed local capture without affecting A1 or A2. In the one patient in whom ablation was performed in these areas, there was no effect on A1 or A2, suggesting these signals represented artifact.


Valve-related signals in the aortic sinuses are commonly seen and can be distinguished. The interval between A1 and A2 correlated with mechanical systole and varied in a physiologically predictable manner with heart rate changes.

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