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26.11.2018 | Original Article Open Access

Impact of androgen deprivation therapy on apparent diffusion coefficient and T2w MRI for histogram and texture analysis with respect to focal radiotherapy of prostate cancer

Strahlentherapie und Onkologie
M. Daniel, P. Kuess, P. Andrzejewski, T. Nyholm, T. Helbich, S. Polanec, F. Dragschitz, G. Goldner, D. Georg, P. Baltzer
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00066-018-1402-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



Accurate prostate cancer (PCa) detection is essential for planning focal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). While biparametric MRI (bpMRI) including T2-weighted (T2w) and diffusion-weighted images (DWI) is an accurate tool to localize PCa, its value is less clear in the case of additional androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The aim of this study was to investigate the value of a textural feature (TF) approach on bpMRI analysis in prostate cancer patients with and without neoadjuvant ADT with respect to future dose-painting applications.


28 PCa patients (54–80 years) with (n = 14) and without (n = 14) ADT who underwent bpMRI with T2w and DWI were analyzed retrospectively. Lesions, central gland (CG), and peripheral zone (PZ) were delineated by an experienced urogenital radiologist based on localized pre-therapeutic histopathology. Histogram parameters and 20 Haralick TF were calculated. Regional differences (i. e., tumor vs. PZ, tumor vs. CG) were analyzed for all imaging parameters. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to measure diagnostic performance to distinguish PCa from benign prostate tissue and to identify the features with best discriminative power in both patient groups.


The obtained sensitivities were equivalent or superior when utilizing the TF in the no-ADT group, while specificity was higher for the histogram parameters. However, in the ADT group, TF outperformed the conventional histogram parameters in both specificity and sensitivity. Rule-in and rule-out criteria for ADT patients could exclusively be defined with the aid of TF.


The TF approach has the potential for quantitative image-assisted boost volume delineation in PCa patients even if they are undergoing neoadjuvant ADT.

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Table S1 Details on T2w and ADC scanning protocols of each patient
Table S2 Characteristic clinical parameters of the two patient sub-groups
Figure S1 The decision tree diagrams for both patient groups and both healthy tissue ROIs
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