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08.05.2020 | Original Article

Impact of forced diuresis with furosemide and hydration on the halo artefact and intensity of tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder and kidneys on [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT in the evaluation of prostate cancer patients

European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Christian Uprimny, Steffen Bayerschmidt, Alexander Stephan Kroiss, Josef Fritz, Bernhard Nilica, Anna Svirydenka, Clemens Decristoforo, Gianpaolo di Santo, Elisabeth von Guggenberg, Wolfgang Horninger, Irene Johanna Virgolini
Wichtige Hinweise
Christian Uprimny and Steffen Bayerschmidt contributed equally to this work.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Oncology - Genitourinary

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to assess the influence of intravenous hydration and forced diuresis with furosemide in two different dosages (20 vs 40 mg) on the intensity of tracer accumulation in the urinary collection system and on the occurrence of halo artefact surrounding the urinary bladder and kidneys in [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT scans.

Materials and methods

Comparison of four groups with 50 patients each, receiving different preparation prior to [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT. Group one, no preparation. Group two, 500 ml sodium chloride administered immediately after tracer injection. Group three, 500 ml sodium chloride and injection of 20 mg furosemide immediately after tracer administration. Group four, 500 ml sodium chloride and injection of 40 mg furosemide immediately after tracer injection. Images were judged visually whether halo artefact was present; semiquantitative measurements were performed with standardised uptake value (SUV).


Halo artefact of the urinary bladder was present in twelve patients without preparation, in eight patients receiving only sodium chloride, in one patient injected with 20 mg furosemide/sodium chloride and in two patients receiving 40 mg furosemide/sodium chloride, showing a median SUVmean in the bladder of 45.8, 14.4, 4.6 and 5.8, respectively. Differences between patient group without preparation and the two groups with furosemide/sodium chloride were statistically significant. Patient groups receiving 20 mg furosemide and 40 mg furosemide did not differ significantly. Renal halo artefacts were observed in 15 patients of group one, in ten patients of group two, in 14 patients of group three and in 14 patients of group four, with corresponding median SUVmean values of 33.9, 32.0, 37.8 and 30.4 (no statistically significant differences).


Performing [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-11-PET/CT, intravenous injection of 20-mg furosemide and 500-ml sodium chloride significantly reduces the number of bladder halo artefacts and intensity of tracer accumulation in the urinary bladder. A total of 40 mg furosemide does not further improve results.

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