The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13613-017-0256-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Optimal sedation and analgesia is a challenge in paediatric intensive care units (PICU) because of difficulties in scoring systems and specific metabolism inducing tolerance and withdrawal. Excessive sedation is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospitalisation. Adult and paediatric data suggest that goal-directed sedation algorithms reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation. We implemented a nurse-driven sedation protocol in a PICU and evaluated its impact.
We conducted a before and after protocol implementation study in a population of children aged 0–18 years who required mechanical ventilation for at least 24 h between January 2013 and March 2015. After the protocol implementation in January 2014, nurses managed analgesia and sedation following an algorithm that included the COMFORT behaviour scale (COMFORT-B). Duration of mechanical ventilation was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes were total doses and duration of medications, PICU length of stay, incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, and occurrence of withdrawal symptoms. Pre–post analysis followed with segmented regression analysis of interrupted time series was used to assess the effect of protocol.
A total of 200 children were analysed, including 107 before implementation and 93 children after implementation of the protocol. After implementation of the protocol, the total number of COMFORT-B scores per day of mechanical ventilation significantly increased from 3.9 ± 2.5 times during the pre-implementation period to 6.6 ± 3.5 times during the post-implementation period (p < 10−3). Mean duration of mechanical ventilation tended to be lower in the post-implementation period (8.3 ± 7.3 vs 6.6 ± 5.6 days, p = 0.094), but changes in either the trend per trimester from pre-implementation to post-implementation (p = 0.933) or the immediate change after implementation (p = 0.923) were not significant with segmented regression analysis. No significant change between pre- and post-implementation was shown for total dose of sedatives, withdrawal symptoms, agitation episodes, or unplanned endotracheal extubations.
These results were promising and suggested that implementation of a nurse-driven sedation protocol in a PICU was feasible. Evaluation of sedation and analgesia was better after the protocol implementation; duration of mechanical ventilation and occurrence of withdrawal symptoms tended to be reduced.
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- Implementation and evaluation of a paediatric nurse-driven sedation protocol in a paediatric intensive care unit
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