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14.11.2017 | Ausgabe 3/2018

Cardiovascular Toxicology 3/2018

In vivo Analysis of the Anti-atrial Fibrillatory, Proarrhythmic and Cardiodepressive Profiles of Dronedarone as a Guide for Safety Pharmacological Evaluation of Antiarrhythmic Drugs

Cardiovascular Toxicology > Ausgabe 3/2018
Yoshiyuki Motokawa, Yuji Nakamura, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Ai Goto, Koki Chiba, Nur Jaharat Lubna, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T. Naito, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugiyama
Wichtige Hinweise
Yoshiyuki Motokawa, Yuji Nakamura and Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa have contributed equally to this work.


Anti-atrial fibrillatory, proarrhythmic and cardiodepressive profiles of dronedarone were analyzed using the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs (n = 4) to create a standard protocol for clarifying both efficacy and adverse effects of anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs. Intravenous administration of dronedarone hydrochloride in doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg over 30 s attained the peak plasma concentrations of 61 and 1248 ng/mL, respectively, reflecting sub- to supra-therapeutic ones. The low dose decreased the left ventricular contraction and mean blood pressure, which were enhanced at the high dose. The high dose also decreased the heart rate and cardiac output, but increased the total peripheral resistance and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, showing its potent cardiodepressive profile. Moreover, the high dose delayed the atrioventricular nodal and intraventricular conductions in addition to the ventricular repolarization, suggesting its inhibitory action on the Ca2+, Na+ and K+ channels in the in situ heart, respectively. The high dose also prolonged the effective refractory period 1.9 times greater in the atrium than in the ventricle, explaining its clinically demonstrated efficacy against the atrial arrhythmias. Dronedarone significantly prolonged the Tpeak–Tend in a dose-related manner with a tendency to prolong the terminal repolarization period and J–Tpeakc, indicating considerable risk to induce torsade de pointes. No significant change was detected in the P-wave duration by either dose, indicating the lack of effect on the atrial Na+ channel in vivo. The current experimental protocol and the results of dronedarone can be used as a guide for safety pharmacological evaluation of new anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs.

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